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Lecture 15

PSY100 Lecture 15 (November 1st, 2012).pdf

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Ashley W.Denton

Lecture 15 (November 1 , 2012) st Morad Moazami Cognitive  Development:     How  do  we  know  what  infants  and  toddlers  know  about  the  world?     Research  techniques  for  learning  what  infants  know:   • Preferential  looking  technique:  if  for  whatever  reason  an  infant  prefers  one   stimulus  to  another,  then  it  prefers  it.   • Orienting  reflex:  the  idea  is  that  infants  want  their  attention  drawn  to  objects  that   are  new  and  novel  to  them.  They  tend  to  get  bored  at  the  same  object,  but  they   orient  towards  objects  that  are  new  to  them.   o Babies  are  born  with  all  these  synaptic  connections  that  they  don’t  lose  or   they  don’t  need  and  the  brain  goes  through  this  move  it  or  lose  it  policy  with   those  synapses,  but  we  tend  to  specialize  in  things  like  human  faces.   • Memory  retention  test:  Memory  retention  test  is  the  idea  that  “What  do  babies   remember?  Do  babies  remember  from  day  to  day?”  The  memory  retention  test  is   laying  a  baby  in  a  crib  and  you  attach  a  string  to  it  and  to  a  mobile  and  so  when  the   baby  kicks,  the  mobile  moves  too,  but  do  they  remember  that  the  next  day  if  you   attach  a  string  to  them  again?  The  older  the  baby  is,  the  better  he  is  at  that,  the   longer  his  memory  can  last.     There  is  infantile  amnesia.  None  of  us  can  remember  the  early  years  of  our  lives.  Our  earliest   memories  are  3  or  4  years  old.     Young  children  also  tend  to  do  a  lot  of  confabulation.  They  make  up  memories.     Understanding  the  laws  of  nature:   • Physics,   • Mathematics     Infants  are  pretty  smart.  They  have  some  intuitive  nature  regarding  the  laws  of  nature  and   gravity.     An  infant  Is  shown  a  possible  event:  A  box  is  released  on  top  of  another  box.  An  infant  is  shown   an  impossible  event:  A  box  is  released  in  mid-­‐air  but  does  not  fall.  Infant  spends  much  more   time  looking  at  the  impossible  event.     Piaget  did  something  with  marbles.  He  played  them  out  and  had  them  clustered  and  spread   out,  and  the  kids  looked  at  the  length:  if  spread  out  further,  they  said  that  the  longer  one  was   more  than  the  other  one.  Researchers  then  replaced  the  marbles  with  M&Ms,  motivating  the   babies  to  take  the  ones  with  most  M&Ms  in  it,  and  they  see  that  the  kids  do  it  successfully.     Social  &  Identity  Development:     Parents  vs.  Peers:     Who  is  really  important  in  terms  of  socialization  and  in  terms  of  kids  establishing  their   identities?  Is  it  parents  or  is  it  peers?     So  Judith  Rich  Harris  basically  said  that  parents  are  nothing.  It’s  all  about  the  peers.  She  has  this   group  socialization  theory  that  said  we  learn  one  set  of  behaviors  inside  the  home,  then  we   learn  other  sets  of  behaviors  by  living  outside  of  the  home.  Behaviors  inside  the  home  are  only   relevant  inside  the  home,  and  it’s  outside  the  home  that  we  learn  how  to  behave  outside  of  it.     Her  theory  was  met  with  a  lot  of  criticism,  and  it  seems  clear  that  both  parents  and  peers  play   an  important  role  in  social  development.     Your  parents  can  help  steer  you  towards  a  set  of  friends,  or  ban  you  from  bad  influences,  so   both  parents  and  peers  are  influential  in  developing  our  identity.     Impact  of  Divorce:     It  is  associated  with  lots  of  negative  outcomes  –  academic  problems,  social  problems.  Not  all   children  cope  poorly:  older  children  handle  it  better,  socially  mature  children.  Worst  than   divorce  is  living  in  a  home  that  is  a  high-­‐conflict  home  with  parents  fighting  all  the  time.  That  is   associated  with  more  negative  outcomes.  The  downsides  of  divorce  point  to  the  impact  on   finances.  Most  of  the  children  are  raised  by  mom,  mom  has  lost  most  of  dad’s  income,  etc.     Gender  Identity:     Refers  to  personal  beliefs  about  whether  one  is  male  or  female.      Gender  roles:  are  culturally  defined  norms  that  distinguish  between  male  and  female   characteristics.  How  people  of  a  certain  gender  are  supposed  to  behave.  These  are  learned  very   early  on.     Gender  schemas:  are  cognitive  structures  that  influence  how  people  perceive  the  behaviors  of   females  and  males.     Both  biology  and  the  environment  clearly  play  a  role  in  the  development  of  gender  identity.     A  kid,  during  a  circumcision,  loses  his  penis,  and  in  the  ‘60s  they  decide  to  make  him  into  a   biological  girl,  and  they  changed  his  name  to  Brenda  and  raised  him  as  a  girl,  and  that  did  not   go  very  well.  Brenda  just  had  tons  of  trouble  going  up  and  she  always  felt  like  she  was  a  boy  and   wanted  to  do  boy  things,  so  finally  when  Brenda  was  15,  the  parents  told  him/her  what  had   happened,  and  she  felt  relieved,  so  she  decided  that  she  wanted  to  be  a  boy.  So  he  became  a   man  and  got  married,  and  he  did  end  up  committing  suicide  after  going  through  a  crisis  as  an   adult.     • But  biological  component  does  exist  in  gender  and  to  who  we  are.     Gender  identity  disorder:  when  a  conflict  occurs  between  a  person’s  biological  sex  and  their   gender  identity.     There  are  issues  dealing  with  whether  this  is  actually  a  “disorder”  or  not.     Racial  Identity:     Another  key  component  of  most  people’s  self  identity.  Something  that  many  adolescents  start   to  deal  with,  and  you  realize  that  not  everyone  looks  the  same  way.     Another  new  issue  is  that  people  have  mixed  racial  and  ethnic  identities,  so  Tiger  Woods  came   up  with  this  idea  for  himself  “Cablinasian”  that  he’s  Caucasian,  black,  American,  and  Asian.   Obama  talks  a  lot  about  the  struggles  he  had  growing  up  trying  to  find  his  racial  identity   because  he  is  from  a  mixed  race  with  a  white  mother,  black  father,  etc.     Even  very  small  infants  are  able  to  discriminate  between  individuals  based  on  skin  color  (and   they  prefer  the  race  they  are  most  familiar  with).  But  the  same  goes  for  gender.       Adulthood  and  Aging:     You  continue  to  develop  throughout  your  lifespan.     Erikson  stressed  this.  He  pointed  out  different  stages  of  development  throughout  the  lifespan.     Erikson’s  Stages  of  identity:     Every  stage  features  a  developmental  challenge  that  must  be  confronted  in  order  to  progress.   • Young  adulthood:  Intimacy  vs.  Isolation   o Building  relations  with  others;  getting  married,  finding  a  partner,  building   friendships,  etc.   • Middle  adulthood:  Generativity  vs.  Stagnation   o Feeling  you’re  contributing  to  society.   § Having  children  fulfills  this  challenge  for  people,  making  you  feel  that   you’re  leaving  something  behind.   • Old  Age:  Integrity  vs.  Despair   o Feeling  like  you’ve  led  a  good  life  and  that  you’re  leaving  good  things  behind   and  feeling  positively  about  what  you’ve  done,  or  despair  and  feeling  like   you’ve  wasted  your  life  with  social  connections.     In  terms  of  adulthood  and  aging,  for  most  people  life  has  these  significant  things  that  are   important  to  how  fulfilled  and  how  happy  we  are:     Career  is  a  real  component  of  adulthood.     Marriage  can  be  very  fulfilling  too.  There  are  benefits  of  being  in  a  happy  marriage.     Having  children  is  another  big,  key  life  event  that  is  very  important  for  a  lot  of  adults.  It  is   associated  with  a  decline  of  marriage  satisfaction,  and  then  an  increase  when  the  kids  leave.     Lastly,  retirement  and  heading  into  old  age  is  important.     We  have  a  very  aging  population.       In  1900,  it  was  5%  of  the  population  was  65  and  over,  by  1950,  it  was  8%,  by  1990  it  was  12%,   and  by  2030,  it  will  be  20%.     The  good  news  about  aging  is  that  if  you  survey  most  older  adults,  the  best  majority  report   being  happy  and  healthy  and  in  good  physical  condition.     Old  people  have  much  fewer  mental  problems  overall  than  young  people  do,  excluding   dementia,  which  is  a  brain  condition  in  which  thinking  memory,  and  behavior  deteriorate   progressively.       In  terms  of  cognitive  changes,  the  big  things  for  older  adults  are  declines  in  working  memory   and  fluid  intelligence.  Cognition  slows  down  and  the  working  memory  isn't  as  good  as  it  used  to   be.     Health  and  Well-­‐Being:     Health  psychology  focuses  on  the  events  that  affect  physical  well-­‐being,  and  applies   psychological  principles  to  the  understanding  of  health  and  well-­‐being.     The  Biopsychosocial  Model:     A  new  approach  to  understanding  health  that  differs  from  the  traditional  health  model  that  is   not  just  focused  on  biology  and  gives  an  active  role  to  the  patient  itself.  We  stil  have  those   biological  characteristics  though,  but  we  also  have  psychological  factors  and  social  conditions.     Biological  characteristics  (genetic  predispositions,  exposure  to  germs,  brain  and  other  nervous   system  development)  à  Psychological  factors  (thoughts,  actions,  lifestyles,  stress,  health   beliefs)  à  Social  conditions  (environments,  cultural  influences,  family  relationships,  social   support).     Can  thoughts  and  beliefs  really  affect  physical  health?     A  good  indication  of  how  important  our  mental  health  is,  is  looking  at  placebo  effects.     Placebo  effect:  A  drug  or  treatment,  that  is  unrelated  to  the  particular  problem  of  the  person   who  receives  it,  may  make  the  person  feel  better  because  the  person  believes  the  drug  or   treatment  is  effective.     We  know  that  everything  we  experience  is  all  in  our  heads,  so  anxiety  and  experience  of  pain   are  associated  with  each  other.     Effects  of  common  knee  surgery  for  osteoarthritis?  There  were  no  differences  between  those   who  got  a  knee  surgery  and  those  who  got  the  sham  surgery,  because  the  fact  that  you  think   you’re  getting  the  surgery,  a  lot  of  that  healing,  may  be  the  placebo  ef
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