WK 3 – Lec #2 – January 24 , 2013
● Ayres and Siegelman, (1995)
○ Initial quote for a new car by Race and Gender
■ higher for black men and women
■ higher for female white vs male white
■ the diff. between white and black is greater for men than for women
Discrimination when buying a new car
● why would salespeople:
○ ask more money from women?
● True colours
○ Ask yourself
■ Why does discrimination exist?
■ Why do stereotypes exist?
Origins of Stereotypes: Cognitive
● Categorization - Hassidic Jews: black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet “sideburns”, religious
○ Why categorize?
■ Infinite number of stimuli in environment
■ limited capacity cognitive system
■ Essential part of learning
■ Occurs spontaneously and automatically
○ Categorization & Stereotypes
■ Stereotypes are traits associated with category
■ can be useful in making predictions
■ are based on a “kernel of truth”
■ are fast&efficient
■ But they are also over-generalizations; especially when applied to an individual
○ Categorize world into in-groups & out-groups
■ In-group: groups to which we belong
■ Out-group: groups to which we do not belong
○ this simplifies social world -> us vs. them
○ categorizing accentuates inter0group differences
○ tend to think positively of in-group: IG bias
■ even minimal groups - camp!
○ Tend to think of out-groups as all the same: OG homogeneity
Origin of Stereotypes: Environmental
● Gun violence in Toronto - Creba(W) vs. Chantel Dunn (B)
● is the media accurately portraying reality
● Or, are they creating stereotypes
Romer Jamieson & deCoteau (1998) ● african-american are heavily presented in News Stories about crime
○ accurate representation? Biased represen