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Lec#2 PSYC12.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

th WK 3 – Lec #2 – January 24 , 2013 ● Ayres and Siegelman, (1995) ○ Initial quote for a new car by Race and Gender ■ higher for black men and women ■ higher for female white vs male white ■ the diff. between white and black is greater for men than for women Discrimination when buying a new car ● why would salespeople: ○ ask more money from women? ○ Blacks? ● True colours ○ Ask yourself ■ Why does discrimination exist? ■ Why do stereotypes exist? Origins of Stereotypes: Cognitive ● Categorization - Hassidic Jews: black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet “sideburns”, religious ○ Why categorize? ■ Infinite number of stimuli in environment ■ limited capacity cognitive system ■ Essential part of learning ■ Occurs spontaneously and automatically ○ Categorization & Stereotypes ■ Stereotypes are traits associated with category ■ can be useful in making predictions ■ are based on a “kernel of truth” ■ are fast&efficient ■ But they are also over-generalizations; especially when applied to an individual ● Groups ○ Categorize world into in-groups & out-groups ■ In-group: groups to which we belong ■ Out-group: groups to which we do not belong ○ this simplifies social world -> us vs. them ○ categorizing accentuates inter0group differences ○ tend to think positively of in-group: IG bias ■ even minimal groups - camp! ○ Tend to think of out-groups as all the same: OG homogeneity Origin of Stereotypes: Environmental ● Gun violence in Toronto - Creba(W) vs. Chantel Dunn (B) ● is the media accurately portraying reality ● Or, are they creating stereotypes Romer Jamieson & deCoteau (1998) ● african-american are heavily presented in News Stories about crime ○ accurate representation? Biased represen
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