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Psychology Chapter 8.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Psychology Chapter 8 Notes - Cognitive psychology is based on the fact that the brain represents information and that the act of thinking (cognition) is associated with manipulating these representations - Two types of representations: - Analogical: representation that has some physical characteristic of an object (similar to object) - Eg. Maps. Relate to graphical layout, family trees relating relationship between others - Symbolic: representations that does not correspond to the physical features of an object - Eg. Words. The word violin stands for musical instrument. No relationship between what violin 
 looks like and the letters that make up the word 
 Mental Images are Analogical Representations - The “R” study - Participants asked to determine if an object was in its normal orientation or mirror image - Objects were rotated and presented in various positions - Participants developed mental images of the objects and rotated these images to view objects in 
 upward position - Further away an object was from being upright, the longer the process took - Have only a limited range of knowledge analogically 
 - If something cannot be perceived wholly, we cannot form a complete analogical representation of it - Conceptual Mental Map
 - Is San Diego further west then Jasper?
 - Symbolic knowledge informed you that Cali is further west then Alberta
 - Showing lines of longitude, symbolic knowledge was wrong
 - We have limited range of knowledge analogically thus use memory shortcuts - Southern Cali (San Diego) is further east 
 Concepts are Symbolic Representations - A concept is a mental representation that groups or categorizes objects - Eg. The concept of a bachelor - Defining Attribute Model is the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that 
 are necessary to determine if an object is a member of the category Psychology Chapter 8 Notes - Eg. Concepts defining bachelor attributes would be male and unmarried - Prototype Model is giving the “best example” or prototype for that category - E.g Instruments---->guitar, violin - Exemplar Model proposes that any concept no single best representation - E.g You see an animal in your yard, you compare this animal with your memories of other 
 animals you have encountered. If it closely resembles the dogs you have encountered, you 
 conclude it as a dog 
 Schemas Organize Useful Info about Environments - Schemas organize info so that it is useful in our daily lives, such as understanding what script to follow in a restaurant or movie - Scripts allow us to make quick judgements but also lead to thinking in stereotypical ways
 - Hilary Clinton and Barack Obama reflected stereotypical scripts in the U.S election 
 People Use Deductive and Inductive Reasoning - Deductive is using a belief to determine if a conclusion is valid (general to specific) - E.g Expecting your Parisian pen pal to be fashionable because you have read that they are - Inductive is using examples to determine if a conclusion is likely to be true (specific to 
 general) - E.g Expecting people from France to be friendly because you met several people who are from 
 there to be friendly - Deductive reasoning 
 - Conditional or categorial syllogisms 
 - Conditional-“If A is true, then B is true”
 - Categorial-the logical argument contains two premises and a conclusion, which can be 
 determined as valid or invalid - Inductive reasoning 
 - E.g Meeting a new friend for lunch and he is late. Might conclude that special circumstances led to their tardiness. After number of instances, might induce that your friend is usually tardy. You make your decision on several different instances or examples Psychology Chapter 8 Notes Decision making Often Involves Heuristics - Heuristics in problem solving, short cuts reduce the amount of thinking needed - Often occurs unconsciously - E.g Buying the second-cheapest item believing that you’re saving money - Affective Forecasting - People are not good at predicting their future feelings - People underestimate the extent that negative events such as being diagnosed with a serious 
 illness w
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