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Psychology Chapter 9.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Psychology Chapter 9 Notes Multiple Factors Motivate Behavior - Maslow proposed a “need theory” of motivation - Need Hierarchy is an arrangement of needs in which basic survival needs (hunger or thirst) 
 must be met before people can satisfy other needs - Self-Actualization is the when a person achieves their dreams and personal aspirations. 
 Achieve full happiness - Pyramid: Physiological, Safety, Belonging and Love, Esteem, Self- Actualization Drives and Incentives - Needs create arousal which drives our behavior - Walter Cannon coined the term homeostasis to describe the bodily function to maintain 
 equilibrium - Over time, if a behavior reduces a drive, it becomes a habit - Incentives are external stimuli that motivate behaviors - E.g Getting a good grade on your exam is an incentive for studying hard - Getting a summer job is an incentive for paying for your tuition Arousal and Performance - Yerkes-Dodson Law states that performance increases with arousal until a certain point - E.g Students perform best on a exam when feeling moderate anxiety. Too little can make them 
 inattentive and too much and affect their thinking ability 
 Pleasure - Freud said that drives are satisfied according to the pleasure principle which drives people to 
 seek pleasure and avoid pain - Infants given sweet solutions found them pleasurable
 Some Behaviors are Motivated for their Own Sake
 - Extrinsic motivation emphasizes an external goal
 - E.g Working to get a paycheck
 - Intrinsic motivation is a value or pleasure that has no external goal - E.g Listening to music Psychology Chapter 9 Notes Rewarding Intrinsic Motives - Mark Lepper allowed children to draw with coloured marking pens, something children find I.M - One group of children were extrinsically motivated to draw by being led to expect a “good player award” - Another group of children was rewarded unexpectedly following the task - A third group was neither rewarded nor led to expect a reward - Children who were extrinsically motivated spent less time with the markers - Kids said it was their job to draw with the coloured pens - It was no longer an intrinsic motivation - Self-determination argues that extrinsic rewards may reduce intrinsic values because such 
 rewards undermine people’s feelings that they are choosing to do something for themselves 
 People Set Goals to Achieve 
 - What is a good goal
 - Challenging but not overly difficult and specific goals are the best 
 - Self-efficacy is the expectancy that your efforts will lead to success
 - Increase S.E often lead to challenging goals which lead to success 
 - Achievement motive is the desire to do well
 - Students with high achievement needs sit closer to the front of the class, score higher on exams - Delayed Gratification is to rise above immediate temptations to achieve long-term goals
 - Children able to delay gratification were able to handle frustration better in the future
 - Strategies used were turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions 
 - Turning desired object into undesired
 - Other strategies were to ignore or become self distracted
 People Have a Need to Belong
 - Humans have a fundamental need to belong
 - Schachter’s Study on Anxiety and Affiliation
 - Females were hooked up to equipment that would give them a shock - Some told the sock would hurt, other were told it would be painless Psychology Chapter 9 Notes - Females who were told the shocks would hurt (had high anxiety) were more likely to want to wait with others - Increased anxiety leads to increased motivation to be with others (for females) 
 Time and Taste Play Roles 
 - We eat because we have been classically conditioned to associate eating with regular mealtimes - Main factor that motivates eating is variety. The more variety of food, the more you want to eat Cultures Determines What We Eat
 - What people eat is determined by a combination of personal experience and cultural beliefs 
 - Familiarity determines food preference
 - Neophobia is the fear of unfamiliar food
 Multiple Neural Processes Control Eating
 - Hypothalamus influences eating
 - Patients with tumors in hypo. became obese (changes can affect your eating)
 - Rats with VMH grow extremely obese
 - Prefrontal cortex processes taste cues such as sweetness and saltiness
 - Leptin is a hormone involved in fat regulation
 - Leptin inhibits eating behavior
 - Ghrelin initiates eating behavior
 Biological Factors Influence Sexual Behavior
 - Sexual Response Cycle has four stages
 - Excitement Phase is beginning in sexual behaviors such as kissing or touching
 - Plateau Phase is where pulse, breathing, and heart rate increase
 - Orgasm Phase is where you have involuntary muscle contractions throughout the body - Resolution Phase is the refractory period. Unable to continue orgasm or erection
 - Hormones influence physical development of brain and body 
 - Secondary sex characteristics
 - Hormones influence sexual behavior through motivation
 - The more testosterone women have, the more sexual thoughts and desires they will have Psychology Chapter 9 Notes - Oxytocin is a hormone released during sexual arousal which promote feeling of love and attachment - Nitric oxide (neurotransmitter) promotes blood flow to penis and clitoris therefore playing an important role in penile erection - Study down that showed women preferred the more masculine faces during ovulation - Men more likely then women to report visual erotic stimulation as pleasurable 
 - Men show more activation of amygdala which increases the arousal caused by the stimulus (naked pics, film clips) 
 Mating Strategies Differ between the Sexes 
 - Men and women want similarities in mates (attractive, kind, honest)
 - Men are more concerned with appearance; women concerned with status
 - Women who view themselves as very attractive want a man with good looks and status Peo
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