Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion
Elliot underwent a surgery that removed a tumor that was very close to the frontal lobes. After the
surgery his intellect was fine but he suffered impairment in motivation and emotion.
How does motivation activate, direct, and sustain behavior?
Motivation: factors that energize direct or sustain behavior.
Motivational states are energizing. They activate or arouse behaviors-they cause animals to do
Motivational states are directive-they guide behaviors toward satisfying specific goals or specific
Third, motivational states help people persist in their behavior until goals are achieved or needs
Fourth, most theories agree that motives differ in strength, depending on internal and external
Multiple Factors Motivate Behavior
Satisfying biological needs is not enough to live a fully satisfying life.
We also have social needs, including the need for achievement and the need to be with others
Need: is a state of deficiency, which can be either biological or social.
Needs lead to goal directed behaviors, failure to satisfy need leads to psychosocial or physical
Abraham Maslow’s Need Hierarchy: Maslow’s arrangement of needs in which basic survival
must be met before people can satisfy higher needs
He believed that o experience personal growth, people must fulfill their biological needs, feel
safe and secure, feel loved and have a good opinion of themselves
Maslow’s theory is an example of humanistic psychology viewing people as striving toward
Humanists focus on the person in motivation-it is you who desire food, not your stomach.
Self-Actualization: A state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have
been attained. In a truly happy state. “What a man can be, he must be.”
Maslow’s need hierarchy generally lacks empirical support, and is to simple.
Drives and Incentives
Needs create arousal which motivates behavior
Arousal: Physiological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses,
sweating or muscle tension.
Drives: Psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs For biological states such as thirst or hunger, basic drives help animals maintain steadiness, or
Homeostasis: the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium.
Hypothalamus initiate responses such as sweating or shivering
When an animal is deprived if some need a drive increases in proportion to the amount of
Over time, if a behavior consistently reduces a drive, it becomes a habit; likelihood that a
behavior will occur to drive and habit.
Drive states push us to reduce arousal, but we are also pulled toward certain things in our
Incentives: are external objects or external goals, rather than internal drives that motivate
Forces outside our conscious awareness can provide incentives for us to behave in particular
Subliminal cues influence behavior, even though they appear so quickly that people cannot
report what they saw
Arousal and Performance
Yerkes-Dodson Law: performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then
decreases with increasing arousal. Graph is like an inverted U
We perform better in tests when we are a bit aroused/ anxious
Sigmund Freud’s pleasure principle: which drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
Hedonism: refers to humans’ desire for pleasantness. We do things that feel good and if
something feels good we do it again. Like chewing gum
Animals engage in behaviors that d not necessarily satisfy biological needs. Like eating dessert
when you are not hungry
Behaviors associated with pleasure promote animals’ survival and reproduction, whereas
behaviors associated with pain interfere with survival and reproduction
Sweetness usually indicates that food is safe to eat. By contrast, most poisons and toxins taste
bitter, so it is not surprising that animals avoid bitter tastes.
Some Behaviors Are Motivated for Their Own Sake
However many activities people find most satisfying, such as reading a good novel, seem to
fulfill no obvious purpose other than enjoyment (not pleasure/ arousal stuff)
Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation to perform an activity because of external goals toward which
that activity is directed. E.g. Working to earn a paycheque Intrinsic Motivation: refers to the value or pleasure that is associated with an activity that has
no apparent external goal-for example playing for fun, solving crossword puzzles is enjoyable