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Lecture 3

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Connie Boudens

Lecture 3 - 01/21/13 Chapter 2: the neural basis for cognition The all about the brain video, the guy was just mentioning gibberish. That seems to be what people hear when the brain is discussed. Lecture Outline: The principle structures of the brain Capgras syndrome neuroimaging the visual system The principle structures of the brain Forebrain includes the cortex and subcortical structures Hindbrain sits on top of the spinal cord, alertness, basic rhythms Midbrain Sits above the hindbrain, coordinate movements (eye movements), auditory pathways, regulates experience of pain Subcortical structures thalamus hypothalamus limbic system: amygdala hippocampus Frontal Lobe forehead centre of reasoning, planning, some parts of speech, movement (motor cortex), emotions, problem solving Parietal lobe top of head sensory input from skin (touch, pressure, temperature, pain) Temporal lobe side (above ears) speech perception, hearing, some types of memory Occipital lobe back receives input from eyes i.e. visual cortex Cerebellum back of brain under cerebrum little brain responsible for movement, balance, posture, learned activities overtime (e.g. riding a bike) Brainstem basic part controls functions essential to life (breathing, digesting, eliminating waste, sleeping, maintaining body temperatures) maintains life without thinking all of these are automated processes Corpus collosum centrally between left and right hemispheres it is a bundle of fibers that connects the two believed that this area is involved in creativity and problem solving loss of a function associated with normal processing Any type of damage to the brain either via birth or accident is called a lesion. Example: Phineas gage, pipe thru head (frontal lobe), fully conscious, joking with the doctor, recovered, after recovery, personality changed, aggressive and crude. Lateralization brain is roughly symmetrical commissures connect hemisphere corpus collosum is the largest Split brain, left and right hemispheres are not communicating when a patient has epilepsy, splitting the brain by cutting the corpus collosum to avoid epileptic seizures. What they find is that individuals can communicate fairly normally, but have no information shared between the two hemispheres A lot of the structures in the brain are similar on each side but somewhat handle different tasks and their communication enables us to have things like speech and vision and controlling our hand movements integrating that information. Cortical organization is contralateral; the left side of the body or perceptual world has more representation on the right side of the brain and vice versa. One side is more creative and the other more about the language, but it's all dependent on the person and how the brain is organized. For instance, this patient's brain is disconnected, and in front of him presents a fork on the right and spoon on the left. When a split brain patient is asked what he sees on the left or on the right, they can see the fork on the right hand side and the spoon on the left side of the screen and can verbalize that. The one thing to talk about here is how the information comes into the visual cortex. When both eyes witness the event, in order to verbalize it, they can only state it's a fork on the right hand side. When it's on the left hand side, they can't verbalize it but they can go reach it with their hand. They have the ability to still grab the instrument but can no longer verbalize it because of the disconnectedness. Left hemisphere: language right can only point, no language. The Cerebral Cortex Primary projection area Sensory: input Motor: output rest of cortex: association areas Something that has a lot of ability for sensitivity and movement has better visual representation in terms of area on the brain, on the cortex. Recall the picture with the actual representations of lips, fingers, etc. from the textbook. It's not about the size of the body part that's important necessarily, but how it functions. less precision: smaller brain area more: bigger Association Areas create associations between simple ideas and sensations. When we're thinking or trying to be involved in learning, this is where we imagine what happens in the brain. Larger section of the three. Capgras Syndrome A patient who can recognize someone but they can no longer feel or associate them as the real person, thinks that they're impostors. The question is why this happens? There's some conflict going on between information pulled it and communication of areas of the brain. The main explanation is that the patient sees the person and can visually recognize them. There's some disconnect to the amygdala, the emotional centre of the brain, without that emotional information that ties your visual information together, they don't feel like the same person. Because of that, you come up with explanations that solves that like impersonation. There's damage to the prefrontal cortex - where thinking and reasoning happens. When we talking about damage to this area, you can't reason or logic, logic is flawed. Also implies that it's harder to justify saneness. When you're problem solving this area lights up. In dreams however, it's not active and it's one of the explanations of why dreaming doesn't make sense. The patient also refers to himself as an imposter of himself. His logic for the impostors, e.g. his mother, is that his sexual urges increases post-accident. He acknowledges the peculiar behaviour of such an urge and concludes that it must be some other woman and not his mother. Temporal lobe corte
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