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PSYB30 Lecture 2.docx

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Connie Boudens

PSYB30 - Lecture 2 - Trait Part 1 - Jan 16th, 2013 Trait is a consistent pattern of behaviour, emotion, and thought. Each trait can be thought as a pattern relating to the environment. 1) There's a stability of time and situations 2) Distinctiveness between people Personality=sum of all traits Trait theories provide descriptions that must be explained by other theories. They don't explain any subconscious factors. You're looking at things close to the surface. Theorists try to establish 1) Framework within which any and all persons can be described 2) Taxonomy of Traits. Approaches to discovering traits 1) Lexical approach Takes words that describe personality traits and tries to figure out the ones that are the most common, to describe people, to capture the variability between people. You might go thru the dictionary and look for all the words that describe people and then eliminate the synonyms in order to get it down to a manageable number of categories that describe traits. 2) Statistical (Empirical) Approach (a.k.a. measurement approach in the textbook) You're starting from actual data from people. You try to figure out the key differences between people. Factor Analysis is an example of this. 3) Theoretical Approach You're starting from theory. It might be a theory that you're building from something. It might be a theory that someone has already set a foundation for. Example: extroversion and introversion: Carl Jung, where they get energy from; inside themselves or from the environment. Every taxonomy that you see that includes the dimensions of extroversion and introversion is in part based on that theory. Common Traits and Trait Continua Common traits are thought to be traits shared by all. Behaviours can be represented on a trait continuum (a scale) - each person can be placed somewhere on continuum. Scores assumed to be normal distributed (fewer people score in the extreme on any trait) Common traits and Nomothetic Approach Ordering people along these dimensions is nomothetic approach used in most traits theories Compares people along the same personality dimensions. This group of people might be more extroverted or agreeable that another and so on. Example: Comparing Canadians and Americans on the trait of risk-aversion. Contrasts with idiographic approach because the latter is about individuals, how people relate to one another, how some traits are more prominent than others. How developmental history might bring out certain traits. You can think of them as case studies. Gordon Allport Advocated idiographic approach. He believed that there were common traits but believed in this approach. Uniqueness = Combination of Traits Use of diaries, interviews, behavioural observations, q-sorts to assess personality. Q sort is basically having trait words on index cards. Sort of similar to a self report questionnaire. The cards that were on the right hand side (level 9) would be describing the participant the most whereas the cards in the middle would be a bit of both. Traits internal structures that render many stimuli functionally equivalent and yield similar adaptive and expressive behaviours. A personality trait was internal that made external stimuli seem the same to that person. Example: shy person might see all social situations as threatening and react with anxiety. You'll be nervous when you go to parties or present in front of a lot of people. This is why behaviours are rendered similarly according to the personality trait that they have. Example: person who is very helpful might see many situations as opportunities to help others. Traits express what a person generally does across many different situations doesn't mean that that's what they're always going to do. But there should be consistency there. When you do see it being inconsistent, it doesn't necessarily mean that the trait doesn't exist, it just means situations also influence whether, where, and how traits expressed. Example: lack of sociability at a funeral or sociable in a particular way: quiet. That's a very impactful situation, regarding of what someone is like, they'll socialize to a certain extent that fits the current context they are in. Three types of traits 1) Cardinal single characteristic that directs most of a person's activities. Strong influence over their life and very few people have them. Example: mother Teresa, helpful and caring person for people who were poor. She had to make a lot of sacrifices for that. Superman, fighting crime. 2) Central Major characteristics of an individual. Usually 5-10 central traits a person has. People tend to describe others at this level where there is balance between trait generality and behavioural specificity Example: extraverted (trait generality) versus sociable versus talks a lot (behavioural specificity) 3) Secondary characteristics that affect behaviour in fewer situations and are less influential. It basically has less impact on the way people behave and is also easier to change. Example: preference for dark chocolate or dislike of rap music Raymond Cattell He took an empirical approach to trait theory. he started off with some lexical work that Gordon Allport had done. He went thru dictionaries and looked for everything related to traits. Reduction of 4500 trait words (left by Allport) to 16 most basic personality dimensions. Removed synonyms Collected ratings on remaining traits (by testing people on them) Used factor analysis (statistical technique to reduce the # of traits that he had). You need to have categories for things. So you'll see later on that there are other theorists that prefer dynamic diagrams. Traits being what they are, you have to have categories. Major division of traits 1) constitutional (biological versus environment-mold/learned) Genetic or in some way part of the fact that we're human. 2) Ability versus temperament versus dynamic Ability Concerns the ability to deal with complexity. It's equivalent to how you ID intelligence (fluid and crystallized). Fluid is the ability to think and reason, this isn't learned. This is something that is innate and may develop it to a certain extent. Crystallized is learned. It's the stuff that you know like how to spell or write or declarative memory facts types of things i.e. who the PM is. Temperament General traits that appear present early. It's the same way that developmental psychology uses it. It concer
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