PSYB30 - Lecture 3 - Traits Part 2 - January 23rd, 2013
The big five +?
Some say that there are some additional factors that goes beyond the big five. One is Honesty-
Humility. Someone would develop measures with that and see if they overlap with one of the
traits in the big five using factor analysis. Some people say that it's the introverted side of
agreeableness (recall: niceness and compliance with others). It's also an empirical question -
answered using data.
Should it be considered a personality factor in addition to the big five. People argue against this
say this is essentially openness. Openness has to do with being interested in different aspects of
the world, being interested in culture, taking in information and consolidating it. This loads on
consciousness. Where it falls with respect to other personality traits depends on how you define
it. It could be curious or logical, being good at problem solving.
Not just engaging in religious behaviour but something more comprehensive. It may be separate
to the big five.
Attractiveness, exclusivity, restraint, orientation, etc. Research indicates there's overlap with the
big five factors.
Is the FFM universal?
It's invariant of culture. You would find it anywhere in the world and is independent of learning.
Derived in English using lexical approach.
Lexical approach means using a word in a language describing personality trying to find what the
basic personality factors are. Assumes other languages will have words for same ideas. This isn't
always the case. When you translate things into another language, you assume that there are
words in the two languages that match each other in similar contexts. This has been validated in
over 50 countries. This is when you use the translated version.
Indigenous measures get similar results except:
extraversion and agreeableness not always distinct from each other. In a Western culture,
extraversion is about outgoing and sociable but also includes the component of social
dominance, i.e. being a leader. That might not translate to other cultures.
Openness has variation because it tends to be defined differently in different cultures.
Unique traits (ex: filial piety in China; Respect for elders, looking after people junior to you,
seeing yourself as an experienced based system)
More than 5 traits needed in some cultures.
Reliability of FFM lower in less developed countries
Some potential reasons are that translations may not be accurate or adequate. Let's say one of the items measures extraversion with regards to whether or not someone takes on a leadership
role, 1-7. Let's say there's a community that has specifically set roles, a specified hierarchy. In a
society like that it's inappropriate for someone to decide to take charge, it won't make sense. If
you haven't done that kind of test before (like bubbling in a sheet), that might be something
that would affect the results. There's always a question if the samples are representative.
FFM in Tsimane culture
It's about whether traits are universal, a culture that hasn't been exposed to Western cultures.
It's a group of people living in Bolivia and they're a hunting and farming culture. In this particular
culture, they used a translated version of FFM (Spanish). They did a FA of the results which
showed only two factors. The first factor is a combination of extraversion and agreeableness. If
you tried to described that factor, it had something to do with being prosocial. The other factor
is industriousness. Last week about FA, when you get you factors, you get your factor loading,
which factors the items load on. You have to look at the individual items and what it is about
them that are common. These are the best descriptors.
Personality in everyday life
MA is done between B5 traits and leadership. Meta analysis is a particular research in which you
find all the studies done about a particular thing. They try to get the ones not published. It's a
statistical technique. Put together data from different studies and treat it like it came from one
study. Studies aren't published because maybe they didn't get significant results. You combine
independent studies done by different people in different labs. Extraversion is the most
consistent correlate of leadership. That consistently predicts whether someone will be in a
leadership role. That's followed by conscientiousness, openness, neuroticism in a negative
direction. The less neurotic, the more likely someone will display leadership behaviours.
Agreeableness has a low correlation with leadership. You would think that it would have a high
Rentfrow and Gosling (2003)
Large scale study on musical preferences and personality. They started by asking people to rate
different types of music and had a lot of different types of music, a comprehensive list. They
used FA to come up with 4 major genres of music. You'd be looking for patterns of things people
enjoyed. If someone enjoyed rap music and they also they enjoyed hip hop, you assume that
that is one genre if enough people rated such a way. Just the same way with personality, you get