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Lecture

PSY421 - Lecture 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Nick Rule
Semester
Winter

Description
PSY421: Person Perception Lecture 1: Sex and Gender January 23, 2012 Sex vs. Gender Sex Gender Biological/physiological Social/cultural Man/woman Masculine/feminine M (bigger bones); W (menstruate) M (make more $); W (more housework) Between legs Between ears - Male/female are adjectives - Men/women are nouns  Personal ads  man seeking female  “Girl cats” - Can categorize sex – discrete groups - Can assess/measure gender – continua; cluster by sex Cues from body - Appearance  Compared to women, men:  Larger (bones, muscles)  Darker  Shaped differently  *Consequence of hormones (i.e. testosterone)  Men tend to be “apple-shaped” (fat in abdomen) as you grow older  Women tend to be “pear-shaped” (fat in hips) for birth Motion - Pointlight  Used to judge sex  Attached in 6 places (wrist, elbows, knees, shoulders, etc.)  Experiment 1: dynamic movement judged  Experiment 2: static movement judges  Results:  For dynamic displays 63% accuracy  For static displays: 46% accuracy (less than chance)  Female walker #1: BUTCH ~60% thought she was male  Experiment 1 showed that there was a difference between sexes in speed of arm-swing  Speed and arm swing are positively correlated  Experiment 3: Arm swing  5 types: normal, hands in pockets, hands at sides (without stiffening upper body), larger than usual, exaggerated so forearm horizontal  Results:  No significant effects  Experiment 4: Walking speed  Matched speed to metronome  Increase 8 & 16 strides/min or decrease same  Speed didn’t affect men but helped identify women  *Male response bias  Suggests that speech helps distinguish between men/women  Experiment 5: test parts  Upper body/lower body  Upper body more useful than lower body  Ankles alone allow for accurate judgment  Hips surprisingly unimportant on their own Sex inferred from morphology/Gender inferred from motion - Study 1A:  25 bodies, 5 WHR x 5 level of sway/swagger  Morphology 0.5 0.7 0.9  Sex: hourglass figure sway >< X H  Gender: hourglass figure normal >< X H  Motion swag >< X H  Sex: swaying  woman  Gender: swaying  more female  People perceived:  Masculine shape/feminine motion (sway) = gay  Feminine shape/masculine motion (swag) = lesbian - Study 1B:  5 bodies = mid-value WHR x 5 levels of sway/swagger  2 conditions: 1) Sex-specific (Ps told all M or F) 2) Sex-unspecific (judge sex)  Effect of 0.9 WHR repeats but only for sex-unspecific  They look for the particular area - Study 2:  Same procedure as 1B  Ps made Straight/Gay judgments - Model A: gender  sex; feminine/masculine  woman/man - Model B: sex  gender; woman/man  feminine/masculine  Body shape provides direct cues to sex  Body motion provides indirect cues to sex but direct cues to gender Behaviour - Men more dominant than women  Take up more space  Swagger (shoulders) vs. sway (hips)  Swagger shows strength - Across lifespan:  Sex-typed differences vary with hormones but also behaviour  Peak difference during child-bearing years  More behavioural difference in adolescence  Less important in elderly  Differences subtle but detectable among children (height, etc.) Voice - Anatomical  Throat shape/structure  Larger throat/wider throat  Laryngeal prominence  Prominent Adam’s apple  Diaphragm  larynx  Tongue makes the most amount of sound - Physiological differences  Hormones + body size = bigger/taller means more testosterone  Energy + speed - Expressions of dominance:  Range restrictions:  Men have lower frequency than women but for the most part same range  Men restrict voice range  To get full range, get him drunk or scare him  After coming out, gay men use their full range  Judgment of traits  Loud = woman  Variability predicts male; less variability = male  Men’s curtness  few words  Popularly regarded as masculine  No actual sex differences seen (study):  210 women, 186 men  Recorded 12 min – 30s ~17hrs/day  Women = ~16.215 (SD = 7.301)  Men = ~15.669 (SD = 8.633)  No significant difference!  Word choice, tone, style (swearing) (1) Conversation between friends and strangers  With or without seeing each other (curtain between them)  Transcripts scored for “female speech register”  Empty adjectives (cool, weird)  Tag questions (it’s nice out, isn’t it?)  Hedges (kinda, sorta, like)  “so”  Women used “female register” more than omen  No difference in curtain (2) Inquiries at an info booth  Eavesdrop  Transcripts scored for “FSR”  Hedges (kinda, sorta)  Politeness (please, excuse me)  Verb form (could you, would you)  Initial contact (hi, excuse me)  Directness (I wonder if you could. . .? vs. where
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