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Lecture 3

PSY421 - Lecture 3.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Nick Rule

PSY421: Person Perception Lecture 3: Sexual Orientation February 6, 2013 Signal detection theory  development of radar, sonar, hearing tests Heard Heard nothing something Sound played Hit Miss No sound False-alarm Correct played rejection Accuracy = Times you correctly heard it (hits) – Times you thought you heard it (false alarm) Hits + CRs % Correct = (doesn‟t count for guessing and therefore inflates accuracy) 2 A little more complicated… t d = Z (H rate) – Z (FA rate) Preferred by social psychologists… A‟ = H + FA + 3×H – FA – 4×FA×H , only if H≥ FA 4×H×(1-FA) A‟ = H - H + FA – FA , if H < FA 4 ×FA×(1-H) - Response bias (C, B‟, B‟‟)  Separate from accuracy  Describes direction of mistakes  More likely to say silent in presence of noise?  Hard time hearing?  More likely to say noise when silent?  Auditory hallucinations? - Often applied to studies of memory I remember I don‟t that remember Shown before Hit Miss Never shown False-alarm Correct rejection Accuracy = correct recognition – false recognition Response bias = Tend to “remember” things to not seen (+)/not commit unless sure (-) - Person categorization I think he‟s gay I think he‟s straight Person is gay Hit Miss Person is False-alarm Correct straight rejection Accuracy = ability to tell if gay or straight Response bias: tend to think everyone is straight (+)/tend to think everyone is gay (-) Why sexual orientation? - Some groups are perceptually obvious: race, sex, age - Can‟t help but notice identities - Perception actively influences our thoughts Many groups are “perceptually ambiguous” - Non-obvious distinctions - Know very little about how we process these - May offer insight to processes used to categorize others, generally Sexual orientation is based on sex 1) Inversion hypothesis: a gay man is a woman trapped in a man‟s body 2) Third sex: A. Hijra – india B. Two-spirit – Blackfoot C. Conflated with transgender i. Often true of sexual orientation generally 3) Sexual orientation is socially constructed Who is gay? - Anywhere from 1-21% of the population, depending on (decreases as you go down list):  Sexual attraction  Sexual behaviour  Sexual identification - Best definition  self-definition Homosexuality: A long history - Cave paintings as back as 7,000 BCE – 9,000 BCE (Bronze age) - More popular examples:  Ancient Egypt, Greece  Japan prior to Westernization (1873)  Samurai culture/fraternal (+ sexual) relationship - Recent history:  WWII Holocaust  Inverted triangles  Cold War in North America:  Communism and homosexuality  Left-wing politics  Joe McCarthy  Canadian “fruit machine”  Measure pupil dilation 1965-1967  Physiological arousal; pupil dilate when seeing person of same-sex = gay History of perceiving sexual orientation - Gaydar = gay + radar  Describes alleged ability of gays and lesbians to identify other gays  Berger (1987)  Judgments from „thin slices‟ of nonverbal behaviour  No effect  Analyzed data incorrectly  Reanalysis showed significant effects - Lay beliefs:  i.e., gay or eurotrash?/lesbian or German lady? (LOL, wtf?) Relevant modalities: - Clothes/static appearance  Lesbians no larger than straight women  Appearance changes after coming out  Hairstyles  Clothing, makeup  Body image  Fragrances (men)  *I‟m out and I‟m proud, then regress; hyper-correct for before - Vocal cues  Gay/straight men sound different  Gaudio  Linville  Smyth, Jacobs, & Rogers  Why?  Many acoustic studies:  /s/  Lisping? [According to history: free spirited, open to experiences]  Mean pitch  Pitch variability  Word choice  Vowel sounds  Controlling for body size  Gay men shorter than straight men (influence on vocal tract)  3/10 vowel sounds for men  Beet, boot, schwa (the)  Schwa is a baseline measure of tract differences  Lower in gay men here  Suggests overcompensation and reversed direction of the differences  7/10 vowel sounds for women  Beet, bait, bit, bet, bat, butt, boat  Biosocial explanation:  Assertive behaviour (lip protrusion) resulting in tract lengthening – straight men Body motion + movement - Thin slice videos  Videos (1s, 10s) and photos of seated gay/straight men/men talking (T)  Course selection, hobbies  Then show P without sound  Ts self-identification using 7 point scale on sexual orientation (0 – hetero, 3 – bi, 6 – homo)  Ps rated Ts using same scale:  How gay do you think this person is?  Significant correlation:  Similar effects from just figural outlines of still photos - Body movement/morphology:  Walk motion:  More swag + 0.5 WHR = lesbian  More way + 0.9 WHR = gay  Treadmi
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