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Lecture 4

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Nick Rule

PSY421: Person Perception Lecture 4: Ideologies February 13, 2013 Importance of face: - Richest source of nonverbal behaviour - Maximum information about thoughts and actions - Specialized neural mechanisms for face processing - Superlatively salient social stimulus Political Ideology: - Electoral success  Predicted from photos of candidates’ faces  Australia, US, France, Finland, Japan, Canada (same effects)  Usually based on trait judgments – predict number of votes  Candidates from different parties also rated differently  i.e. Democrats Republicans More likeable More dominant More trustworthy *No difference in competence! - Party faces:  Study 1: Professional politicians  Candidates from 2004 & 2006 US senate elections  Dichotomous judgments: Democrat or Republican?  Excluded 3 party C; racial minorities (stereotype that racial minorities are democrats, especially Black people)  Results: accuracy significantly greater than chance guessing  Not due to a small number of highly legible faces  Professional politicians peacocking for parties?  Study 2: Undergrads  Students in D and R parties  Dichotomous judgments  All senior portraits:  Standardized clothing (dress code)  Taken at same time  Not political ads (politics furthest from mind)  Results:  Stronger effect than professional politicians!  Not due to a small number of selected pics  No face was categorized perfectly  Study 3: What is the basis for these effects?  Rated faces: (1-7)  Power:  Submissive  Babyish  Warmth:  Likeability  Trustworthiness  Results:  Republicans seen as more powerful  No difference in warmth between D and R - *Perceived* political affiliation  Correlate proportion of people categorizing each face as Ds with mean ratings of power and warmth for each target  Personality traits?  Responsible for the difference in categorization? Power ratings B = -.3 / \ controlled for actual affiliation, B = -0.26 Actual affiliation-----------------------------------perceived political affiliation B = -0.37  People who are D and look powerful look D  THEREFORE, power = vital cue as to what a P looks like Power +/ \+ 0 = R ---------------------- what you look like 1 = D *  more R  more powerful  more D  more warmth  Similar effects in the Netherlands  Asked 19 readers to judge 6 Dutch politicians  Overall 64% correct  UK  19 students rated 90 faces of Labour + Conservative MPs  Rated 1 (definitely Labour) to 6 (definitely Conservative)  Morphed faces:  Actual  Similar morphs; L + C look alike  Apparent  Striking difference  Labour  Broader/pronounced smile  Softer  More feminine features  Caricatures  Asked Ps to categorize 200% caricatures of consensus of C+L faces  45/67 guess correctly  Anti-faces of each consensus face  Theoretical opposite of each face  Disrupted judgments, looked like opposites  Reversal of inferences?  Perceiving true ideology  Political party is just a proxy for ideology  Ideology likely to cluster by party but still variation within party  German parliament video + still frames  Based on party membership: L-wing/R-wing  Swiss politicians’ vote records  Composite R-L score created for each politician based on their voting records  Assessed P’s political identity along 7 point scale  Results:  Significant correlation in judgment between perceived ideology and voting record  P more accurate in judging Ts from other end of ideology spectrum (ingroup overestimation effect)  Extra traits:  Dominance + trustworthiness  D mediated relationship between actual and perceived affiliation  Added masculinity, femininity, neither was a significant mediator  Politicians rated accurately had higher changes of being re-elected to the following parliamentary session  Democrats who look more Republican more likely to get elected to conservative states Religion - Political beliefs are stable through life, but affiliations are chosen - Religious beliefs are more directly the product of practice and upbringing (a way of living life) - Political views may be legible because personality traits are legible - Maybe religion too? Judaism - Studies:  ID Jewish after WWII  Nazi profiling during the Holocaust  1946 Allport & Kramer  Pictures chosen to “vary widely cast”  1946 Lund & Berg  Live appearance  1948 Carter  Jewish, Gentile, Mediterranean
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