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Lecture 18

Lecture 18

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Waggoner Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 18 (November 20 , 2012) th Morad Moazami Personality:     Personality:  The  characteristic  thoughts,  emotional  responses,  and  behaviors  that  are  relatively   stable  in  an  individual  over  time  and  across  circumstances.       When  a  person  falls  down,  we  can  make  many  judgments.  We  can  make  situational  judgments   or  dispositional  judgments  towards  their  behavior.     Strong  Situations:  Powerful  social  environments  that  mask  differences  in  personality.  For   example,  job  interviews,  funerals,  hanging  out  with  your  boss.  This  is  because  you’re  acting  in   different  ways  in  these  situations.  The  idea  here  is  that  they  mask  differences  in  personalities.  It   is  hard  to  get  a  grasp  of  somebody’s  personality  because  the  situation  is  taking  hold  of   everything  ese.     Then  we  can  contrast  that  with  weak  situations,  that  is  the  opposite  case.  In  these  situations,   your  personality  and  the  personality  of  others  is  more  likely  to  come  out,  so  It  is  easier  to   discern  difference  between  different  people.  You  can  tell  the  introverts  and  the  extroverts  in   this  social  gathering.  These  arer  the  types  of  situations  when  personality  shines  through  more   easily.  It  allows  people  to  behave  more  freely,  and  it  is  easier  to  discern  personality  differences.     Different  Ways  of  Studying  and  Understanding  Personality     We’re  going  to  talk  about  Freud  first  of  all,  who  is  all  about  unconscious  processes.     Then  we  will  talk  about  Carl  Rogers  and  humanistic  psychologists.     Trait  approaches  are  the  most  common  approaches  that  are  used  these  days,  and  then  we  will   talk  about  cognitive  approaches.     We  go  from  Freud  who  is  about  these  unconscious  things  versus  the  trait  approaches  which  talk   about  extroversion  and  introversions,  etc.       Freud’s  Psychodynamic  Theory     Freud  was  all  about  the  unconscious  and  all  focused  on  these  unconscious  behaviors  that   determine  our  behavior  and  our  personality.       Freud  emphasizes  the  influence  of  unconscious  forces  on  behavior.     We  have  our  conscious  mind  which  is  our  present  awareness,  and  then  we  have  our   preconscious  mind  which  is  outside  awareness  but  accessible.  They  are  ideas  that  we  can   access  and  bring  up  to  our  conscious  mind  if  we  think  about.  It  is  accessible.  It  is  outside   awareness  but  accessible.  Then  we  have  our  unconscious  mind  that  is  inaccessible  to  us  and  we   have  no  idea  what  is  going  on  down  there.       Along  these  different  levels  of  consciousness,  we  also  have  three  different  parts  too.   • The  Id:  it  is  completely  unconscious  psychic  energy,  and  it  is  about  the  pleasure   principle.  It  is  all  about  self-­‐focusedness  and  it  is  guided  by  the  pleasure  principle   and  all  about  pleasure.   • Superego:  it  extends  from  the  conscious  mind  all  the  way  down  to  the  unconscious   mind.  It  is  the  opposite  of  the  Id,  and  rather  being  focused  on  pleasure,  it  is  more   focused  on  the  internalized  ideals.  It  is  a  rigid,  moral  based,  unconscious  entity  that   is  driving  your  behavior.     o The  superego  and  Id  don’t  get  along  very  well,  and  that’s  where  our  ego   come  sin.   • Ego:  It  is  the  executive  mediator  that  tries  to  balance  the  Id  and  the  Superego.  Our   ego  is  guided  by  the  reality  principle.  Whereas  the  Id  is  unhinged  on  reality,  the  Ego   tries  to  reason  things  through  and  rationalize  things  through  and  balance  out  these   competing  forces.     It  is  kind  of  like  the  devil  and  angel  on  your  shoulder  thing.  Our  Id  is  the  devil  on  our  shoulder.     Then  we  have  our  superego  is  the  angel,  and  we  are  the  ego,  who  is  trying  to  compete  with   these  two  theories.     Another  important  dynamic  of  the  ego  is  the  idea  of  defense  mechanisms:  these  mental   strategies  that  we  use  to  protect  ourselves  from  these  uncomfortable  conflicts  that  are  going   on.  They  are  unconscious  mental  strategies  the  mind  uses  to  protect  itself.  There  are  all  these   hidden  conflicts  in  our  mind,  so  one  thing  that  our  ego  does  to  deal  with  this  is  that  it  comes  up   with  these  defense  mechanisms  to  protect  us  from  these  unconscious  conflicts.  So  it  helps   maintain  our  self-­‐esteem.     Obviously  we  don’t  still  follow  Freud’s  theories.  The  problem  with  his  theories  and  why  they   don't  exist  in  a  modern  form  today  was  because  his  theories  were  untestable.  They  weren't   scientific  and  didn’t  produce  hypotheses  that  we  could  test.  Because  of  that,  we’ve  moved  onto   more  scientific  ways  of  examining.     Humanistic  Approaches:     Humanistic  approaches  emphasize  personal  experience  and  belief  systems.  It  proposes  that   people  seek  personal  growth  to  fulfill  their  human  potential  and  to  experience  self-­‐ actualization.     Rogers’  person-­‐centered  approach:   • Phenomenology    Subjective  human  experience.   • Unconditional  positive  regard.     Maslow  would  be  defined  as  a  humanistic  psychologists,  talking  about  people  trying  to  be  the   best  they  can  be.     Carl  Rogers  is  another  impactful  humanistic  psychologist,  and  he  believed  in  talking  to  people   and  knowing  how  they  interpret  things.       He  talks  about  unconditional  positive  regard.  He  felt  like  a  lot  of  the  time  parents  didn't  really   love  their  children  unconditionally.  They  only  loved  them  on  different  conditions,  and  he   believed  that  it  was  important  for  parents  to  show  this  unconditional  positive  regard  and   acceptance.  It  was  all  about  acceptance  and  loved.     Humanistic  psychology  was  also  untestable.     What  is  happening  now  though,  we  have  positive  psychology.  So  the  idea  of  positive  psychology   is  that  it  is  focused  on  not  on  the  negative  outcomes,  but  looking  at  the  positives  and  the  role   of  positive  emotions,  and  so  Barbara  Frederickson  has  this  broaden-­‐and-­‐build  theory,  that  says   positive  emotions  broadens  our  horizons  and  makes  us  seek  out  novel  solutions  to  problems.   These  are  actually  scientific  theories  that  can  be  experimented  and  tested.  So  positive   psychology  is  moving  to  the  realm  of  being  a  positive  science.     Type  and  Trait  Approaches:     Personality  types:  discrete  categories  that  are  based  on  global  personality  characteristic.  It  is   the  type  of  person  that  has  all  these  different  characters,  and  we  all  have  these  implicit   personalities.   • Implicit  personality  theory:  we  tend  to  believe  that  certain  personality   characteristics  go  together.   o We  are  sort  of  surprised  when  Sally  is  an  introvert  but  she  really  loved  doing   karaoke.       Personality  trait:  A  characteristic,  a  dispositional  tendency  to  act  in  a  certain  way  over  time  and   across  circumstances.   • The  trait  approach:  emphasizes  the  extent  to  which  individuals  differ  in  personality   dispositions.  We  do  this  in  our  daily  lives.  We  talk  about  somebody  being  nice  and   helpful  and  whether  we  like  them  or  not.  The  trait  approaches  are  not  about   explaining  personality,  but  focused  on  describing  personality,  and  how  we  can   describe  personalities  in  a  way  that  is  meaningful.     How  Many  Traits?     How  do  we  describe  people  in  meaningful  ways?  How  many  traits  are  there?     Way  back  in  the  day  in  the  1930s,  they  came  up  with  18,000  traits  to  describe  one  another.   Anderson  came  up  with  555  words  that  we  use  to  describe  other  people.  16,  5,  and  3  have  all   been  put  out  as  big  factors  that  we  use  to  describe  personality  in  meaningful  ways.     We  will  focus  on  3  and  5.     Eysenk’s  Hierarchical  Model:     Eysenk’s  hierarchical  model  focused  on  three  particular  traits:   • Introversion/Extroversion   • Emotional  Stability   • Psychoticism  (Constraint)     Emotional  stability  has  to  do  with  how  stable  your  emotions  are.  On  one  side  you  have   neuroticism  while  on  the  other  you  have  stability.     Psychoticism  has  these  terrible  connotations,  but  he  meant  it  more  as  constraint.  We  don't   literally  mean  are  you  a  psychopath  or  not,  but  psychoticism  was  meant  to  have  aggressive,   impulse  control,  how  much  empathy  you  have,  etc.     So  Eysenks’  model  is  four  levels:    
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