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Lecture 7

Lecture 7

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Waggoner Denton

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Lecture 7 (October 2 , 2012) nd Morad Moazami Altered  States  of  Consciousness:     Sleep:     Your  brain  does  not  shut  down  during  sleep.   • Your  brain  remains  active,  and  goes  through  different  cycles.     • Wakefulness  is  beta  waves.   • Just  before  sleep,  we  have  alpha  waves.   • The  first  stage  of  sleep  has  theta  waves  –  you're  easily  woken  up.  It’s  that  early  stage   of  sleep  when  you’re  not  quite  asleep  yet.   • The  second  stage  is  when  you  fall  asleep,  so  the  brain  is  working  very  hard  to  keep   you  asleep,  hence  the  sleep  spindles  and  the  K-­‐complex   • After  that  we  get  to  these  large  delta  waves,  which  is  very  deep  sleep.     You  have  awareness  of  what  is  going  on  around  you  while  you  are  sleeping.   • While  you  have  less  awareness  of  what’s  going  on  around  you,  but  it  is  not  true  that   you  have  no  awareness  of  what  is  going  on.  It  is  on  the  lookout  for  any  signs  of   dangers.  This  is  why  mothers  or  fathers  sleeping  with  their  babies  generally  don't  fall   asleep  on  the  baby.  If  you're  a  parent  for  example,  you  hear  your  baby  and  you  jump   out  of  bed  to  protect  it.     You  don’t  only  dream  during  REM  sleep.   • For  a  while  scientists  thought  that  you  only  dreamt  through  REM  Sleep,  which  is  the   stage  of  sleep  marked  by  rapid  eye  movements,  dreaming,  and  paralysis  of  motor   systems.   o Dreams  during  REM  sleep  tend  to  be  bizarre,  illogical,  emotional.   o  Different  parts  of  the  brain  become  active  during  each  sleep.   o REM  arises  from  activation  of  the  emotion,  motivation,  reward,  and  visual   centers  of  the  brain.   • But  you  also  dream  during  non-­‐REM  sleep.   o Even  though  the  dreams  are  mundane.     You  learn  while  you  sleep.   • There  are  three  general  explanations  for  the  adaptiveness  of  sleep,  why  we  do  it.   o We  sleep  because  our  body  needs  time  to  repair  and  restore  itself   (restorative  theory).   o Circadian  rhythm  theory:  sleep  evolved  as  a  way  to  keep  us  inactive  during   the  time  on  day  when  we  are  the  most  vulnerable.  Since  we  need  our  vision   a  lot,  we  sleep  during  night  to  be  kept  safe  from  our  most  vulnerable  time  of   day.   o Facilitation  of  learning  theory.   § Learning  is  all  about  creating  neural  connections,  and  when  we  learn   something  during  the  day,  the  neural  connections  are  actually   strengthened,  especially  if  you  dream  about  that  information.     Consuming  alcohol  will  not  help  you  sleep  better.   • Alcohol  may  help  you  fall  asleep  faster,  but  it  messes  up  your  sleep  cycle  and  the   quality  of  the  sleep  you  get.   o It  lightens  your  sleep,   o You  wake  more  frequently,   o You  have  more  trouble  returning  to  sleep,   o You  will  have  les  REM  sleep.     Hypnosis:     Hypnosis:  A  social  interaction  during  which  a  person  responding  to  suggestions,  experiences   changes  in  memory,  perception,  and/or  voluntary  action.     It  all  depends  much  more  on  the  characteristics  of  the  person  being  hypnotized  than  of  the   hypnotist.   • Being  highly  suggestible  does  not  mean  the  person  is  stupid  or  gullible.   • Rather,  it  has  more  to  do  with  the  ability  to  get  lost  in  activities,  to  block  out   distractions.     Is  it  really  an  altered  state  of  consciousness?  It  really  does  seem  to  be  this  altered  state  of   consciousness.  For  example,  with  one  experiment,  hypnotized  people  were  told  that  the  Stroop   Test  is  a  bunch  of  meaningless  symbols  and  the  hypnotized  believe  it.     Meditation:     Two  broad  types  of  meditation  are:   • Concentrative  meditation:  Focusing  all  of  your  attention  on  one  particular  thing;  like   a  mantra.   • Mindfulness  meditation:  You  are  just  sitting  there  and  allowing  your  thoughts  to   flow  freely,  and  you  pay  
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