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chapter 1&2.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Her treatment is regarded as marking the beginning of psychoanalysis. Breuer observed that whilst she experienced absences, she would mutter words or phrases to herself. In inducing her to a state of hypnosis. William James: functionalism (adaptive purpose or function of mind and behaviour), stream of consciousness ( one’s continuous series of ever changing thoughts) Helping organisms adapt to environment, coupled with Darwin’s thought Practical psychology, describing relationships between organisms and adaptation problems We are determined by our past choices Decarte The central claim of what is often called Cartesian dualism, in honour of Descartes, is that the immaterial mind and the material body, while being ontologically distinct substances, causally interact. This is an idea which continues to feature prominently in many non-European philosophies. Mental events cause physical events, and vice-versa. But this leads to a substantial problem for Cartesian dualism: How can an immaterial mind cause anything in a material body, and vice-versa? This has often been called the "problem of interactionism". Reflexive body, rational mind Physiology and philosophy Mind (non-physical) body (physical)dualism Material body with immaterial mind Argue that body and mind can influence each other Think that we have a free mind, a free will, if we do, then we can choose what to do Where does the choice come from We don’t want to be thought as robots Free will is more than material, how to study immaterial mind, how to study the soul? If we don’t have it, then we are machine---- disturbing question for people How does consciousness emerge in body If immaterial, then hard to study using science, How does brain related to the mind Edward Titchener, Max wertheimer: structuralism (consciousness into different components) Illusion of motion seeing moving object or blinking object Wundt: experimental methods (people to inspect and report on content of thought) Pendulum experiment, there’s are methods to study this, 1/10 seconds to reorient attention Gestalt: whole of personal experience is greater than simply the sum of constituents Perception of objects is subjective and dependent on context Top town process (ie. Brain constructing world) How experience is constructed Early 1900s, in Germany, focused on the insight that perception is CONSTRUCTED, - emphasized “top-down” processes (i.e., brain constructing a sensible world) in perception and learning (e.g., insight learning) - Gestalt psychologists emphasized how experience is constructed, and what rules the mind uses in order to make sense of reality Social Psychology- Kurt Lewin Interaction b/w people and environment Conformity, prejudice Humanistic psych: fulfilment and well being, personal growth Anti behaviourist- focus on c By philosophers and psychologists Sigmund Frued: unconscious awareness- tested by free association technique,psychoanalysis=try to bring unconsciousness into conscious awareness), hard to test scientifically Bringing past traumas into conscious awareness John B Watson: behaviourism (reward and punishment, environmental roles) B.F. Skinner: behaviourism (study of mind too subjective and unscientific) Believed that mental states were nothing more than an illusion. Studied how repeated behaviours were shaped or influenced by events that followed them. If animal perform behaviour led to positive outcome, they’ll do it again Cognitive Psychology Emphasis on humans Return psychology to focus of mind Social cognition, cognitive neuroscience Dualism start to break down and integrate How People think Affects Behaviour How people perceive situations could influence behaviour and that learning was not as simple as the behaviourists believed Cognitive psych is concerned with higher order mental functions, such as intelligence, thinking, language…. Cognitive research show that the way people think about things influence their behaviour Information processing theories of cognition viewed the brain as the hardware that ran the mind as software; the brain take in info as a code, process it, sotres relevant sections, and retrieves stored info as required. Social Situations shape Behaviour Social psych focuses on the power of situation and how people are shaped through their interactions with others (eg following orders to kill innocent during Nazi period even though it’s inhumane) Kurt Lewis: filed theory emphasized the interplay between people and their environment Psychological Therapy is Based on Science Carl Rogers &Abraham Maslow: humanistic approach to treatment of psych disorders while Sigmund Freud’s are abandoned Stressed how people can come to know and accept themselves in order to reach their unique potentals Behavioural modification methods: change behaviour rather than deal with mental conflict Therapy for correcting faulty cognition (eg. Depression, eating disorder) Drug therapy may have negative effects There’s no universal treatment for all psych disorders Clinically effective and recognizing treatments are needed to deal with disorders Review: SOCIAL, INDIVIDUAL, BIOLOGICAL Psych science from philosophy and physiology Reduce mental process into structural parts How mind functions, subjective mind Freud on unconsciousness Gestalt on perception Behaviourism Cognitive revolution back onto mental process Social context of behaviour Treatment for psych disorder How can we apply psych science? Psychological scientist: use science to study brain, mind, behaviour Psychological practioners Social psychologist on influences that situations and people have on how we act, feel, think (peer, cultural) Personality psychologists: individual preferences Developmental psychologists: changes in mind and behaviour, study children Cognitive psychology: mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, remembering Cognitive neuroscience: brain system Behavioural neuroscientists: biological mechanisms Experimental psychopathologist: study abnormal or disordered behaviour Sports psychology Help athletes train their mind to focus on goals and think as a winner Psychological knowledge us used in many professions Psychologist think Probabilistically!!!!!!! Probabilistic vs. binary thinking Anastasia desousa shot by a guy in goth culture Can you make correlation that goth culture affected his behaviour?? Lots of goth people don’t kill The brain. Emergence of powerful technologies for brain imaging (fMRIs, etc.), so that for the first time, we can ‘see’ the functioning of the brain as it occurs, and can begin to correlate specific brain areas with specific thoughts, feelings and other mental processes, as they occur. Chapter2: Research Methodology Why can’t johnny read? Social, individual, biological(environmental) levels of analysis larger picture Behaviour has multiple causes!!!! Integrate many causal relationships they find!Approach a problem from multiple perspectives Integrative thinking!! Holistic (,,, News events: specific vivid events capture attention more than complex debates finger pulls on trigger or trigger pulls the finger ,increase in aggressiveness with a gun in hand) Happy family dinner time  drug abuse Mosso had subject balanced on a fulcrum, when subject start to engage in emotional or intellectual activity eg. Doing arithmetic, table tilt down toward head due to increase blood flow to head Now able to track blood flow Scientific method: formulate hypothesis-> design study -> collect data -> analyze data -> desseminate the results Control group, statistical procedures to see if result are due to chance only 3 types of studies: experiments, correlational studies, descriptive studies Experimental: independent vs. dependent variable to establish causal relationship, control Correlational and observational: examines behaviour as it naturally occurs, can’t assess causality What is Scientific Inquiry? Description, what happens Prediction, when Causal control, what causes Explanation, why Scientific questions can be objectively answered Answer to an empirical question does not depend on what the respondent or scientist thinks about the question Replication confirm the results of earlier studies, help build principles of psych science Poor designs cannot be repeated The empirical process depends on Theories, hypotheses, and research Theory, idea or model of how something works, explains
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