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Lecture 6

lecture 6.odt

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Part I – Motivations and Emotions- kind of interconnected with part II – Heath and disease Needs and Drives Drives – e.g. hunger- psychological states that encourage behaviours to satisfy needs e.g. hunger is a drive that satisfies the need for food – encourage behaviour by increasing arousal(increeasing mental activity, physical thing – anything can classify under arousal) – Motivation increases so does arousal level as the drive for hunger increases Drive -----Arousal Arousal-----Motivation to satisfy the current pressing need – e.g stealing someone's food How does motivation lead to peformance? – need to perform well in school, more motivated you are- it increases arousal?** Can it go both ways?Arousal to motivation but motivation to arousal? - usually arousal to motivation- just assume that for now – Does increased motivation leads to increased performance? – You get an upside down curve- The Yerkes-Dodson Law – Going from low to high level of arousal – The optimal level of arousal is the moderate level of arousal leading to the best performance – Alittle bit of arousal is good – no anxiousness= no motivation to study early; if too much arousal = too anxious = you can't think straight= poor performance – Moderate level leads to the greatest quality of performance Maslow's Hearchy of needs 1. Physiological needs on the bottom – to sustain life 2. Safety needs 3. Belonginess and love needs 4. Esteem needs 5. Self actualzation – being the best you can be – Things on the bottom need to be filled before you move up the triangle – so physiological needs to be met before safety needs – it's too simplistic- sometimes higher up needs may be more important than bottom ones – e.g. a prisoner of war – what keeps them going in desperate situation like that (no food, beating, etc)– are things that are up there -e.g. friendship, control, pride – So not the case that you have to meet the needs in a particular order – too simplistic – another criticism- top of the pyramid – very individualistic perspective to be the best you can- It's not only our internal drives that guide our behaviour Also incentives: – external stimuli – as opposed to internal drives that motivate behaviour – e.g. food tastes good- so keep eating even though the drive/need is met – e.g. watching a movie even though sleepy What else influence motivation? – Extrinsic motivation – motivation to engage in any behaviour because of the goal it gets you – you may not enjoy studying – but you goal is to get good grades that keeps you going – Intrinsic motivation – reward comes from the actual behaviour as well – behaviour is the end – not trying to get to the end to enjoy it – e.g. playing a sport because you like it Intrinsic Vs Extrinsic Motivation – e.g. take some thing that people already enjoy doing – and reward them for it – so going from intrinsic to extrinsic – for one group in the day care- researchers said if you play with the markers- you get a certificate for being a good student – For another group – no reward or unexpected reward – at the end no one knew How long did the kids play with the markers? – those kids that expected the reward – played much less with the marker next time they were playing without the markers? Next time right? – Self – determination theory – undermines feelings of control – those students were getting the reward -felt that they had to do it – Self perception theory – children thought oh I played with the markers before – I should do it again because it was fun (this was in the case of no reward) – kids who did play with the markeer because of rewards – will think oh I got the reward that's why I played with markers – no more reward – no need to play with it – markers were associated with reward rather than enjoyment – don't reward people for somehting that they already enjoy Self regulation > Self regulation- difficult – self-efficacy – people's beliefs that their behaviour will lead to success (e.g. studying hard will get me a good grade) – people in low self-efficacy – don't have that – e.g. if people think that no matter how hard I sstudy I will do poorly – won't have much motivation – high self-efficacy = high motivation (because of the belief – high effort = high success) – Difficult because long term goals often conflict with short term goals – e.g. dieting is very hard Self- regulation theories – Strength theory of self regulation – self regulation = a limited resource – today you have some self regulation – once used up on one task– you can't use again later on the day e.g. eating muffins at night after passing off pasta and fries (see the picture) – but also like a muscle if you exercise -you can stretch it and build it – practice can build our self regualting resources – study – over two weeks -some self regulatory task for college students – e.g. one group- maintain posture; another group- regulate your mood – to measure their self regulatory effect – they would grip them in the firm way – they will hold on for a longer time – higher self regulation ; or they would hold a bucket of water for a longer time Self-regulation as a limited resource – told participants to not eat for a while – skip a meal – they all walk in – all smell cookies – one half they give them cookies – the other half- sees the cookes but can't eat them- eats the raddishes – Self-regulation resources taken up to prevent them from eating cookies – the other group no self regulation Experiment – Dependent variable- given an unsolvable task(they don't know that) – try as much as you want- fiinish the task – how long do they persist on the task? – Turnip eaters – used up their resources – so spent much less time on the task – **** BUT didn't they practice self regulation – so they should have higher as in the case with holding the bucket of water – no, practice = over a long time Delayed gratification – Marshmallow is placed in front of the kid and told if she doesn't eat until they come back – they will get two marshmallows – how well you perform on this task can reflect on how well the kids will perform acadmically and in life later on! - this silly test leads to immportant measures of life – most succesful strategy to not eat the marshmallow = turning hot cognition into cold cognition – e.g. imagining marshmallow not as a tasty appetizing thing but rather as a rock not atable – or distracting themselves, ignoring it – the ability to delay gratification as a child has been associated with numerous social and academic outcomes in adolescence and aduluthood – also as you get older – the better you are able to delay gratification Focus on two basic needs: Food and Sex Eating – what? When? Why? How much? What do we eat? – depends on cultural/ religious beliefts (/ personal experience (food you like/ what your parents fed you) – also depend on the time of day- breakfast – don't eat lasagna – any reason? Not really – bacon and eggs usually associated with breakfast- just what we general eat – e.g. eating insects normal in other places – but not in western culture – e.g. americans find poutine disgusting When? – when we are hungry – when it's meal time – body used to eating at a certain time of the day even if not hungry – When it's tasty – when there's food – just sitting in front of it Why? – to survive – but what signal tells us to eat/ not eat? – Hypothalmus – the master regulatory structure – important for these need driven behaviour (remember the four Fs)- wasn't ganglia or pon something responsible for drives****? – In the ventral medial region responsible for satiety centre – stop you are full – for rats if this centre not present – they keep eating and eating until they die – In the lateral hypothalmusl – tell you eat you are hungry – aphagia – if this lateral feeding centre is blocked – Hypothalmus = not the only important part in eating – prefrontal cortex= important for taste sensation – tells you something is taste – lymphic centre- some food tasty – leads to a higher drive – for people overweight – lymphic system overactive when they see food they like There are a lot of systems workign together leading to hugner- ventromedial vs lateral region removed – leptin- hormone released from fat – more of a long term regulating strategy – Ghrelin – short term – stomach is growling when you are hungry – surges before eating and decreases after eating – Glucostatic theory- our body pays attention to glucose levels in the bloodstream – if they decrease – sends signal that you need to increase energy source – Lipostatic theory- set-point for body fat – you need to eat if fat levels too low Dieting – why is losing wight so difficult? We don't understand what works for some people doesn't work for others? – Your body has some weight that it likes to be at- Set point that obdy wants to be at – e.g. body responds to weight loss by slowing down your metabolism- party genetics – Bouncing back and forth = staration mode – so anything you eat- it puts in to storage – Restrained eaters- so strict in consumptions – eat according to rules instead of listening to their body- looking at calory levels or eating at a certain time – if they ffeel like a rule is broken – they will break all the rule – ate one cookie – might as well eat them all – excessive eating\ Eating – how much? 1. if you go to a party – more variety tends to lead to more eating – physiological explanation – senesory specific satiety – your taste buds get bored -e.g. you gets sick of dinner but stillroom for dessert – evolutionary advantages to it- if all we ever at was one thing – you die – the idea = to eat a variety of different food to get the nutrients you need- better able to survive 2. Larger portions = more eating- even plate sizes have gotten bigger (one of the dieting tips = use smaller plates – so even ore filling) Obesity – set-points – largely genetics that has influence – yes obesity can run in family – some genetics – Genetics determine whether a person can become obese – but environment determines whether the person WILL become obese – environment does play a large role Maps – left picture- green is good – dark orange is the worst – northern states/ canada = lowest obesity – why are southern states more prone to obesity? – One issue – people in the southern states tend to exercise less – but still a very complex issue Obesity – does have a relation with self esteem – overweight people usually low self esteem – all correlational reesearch – so directionality problems- whether it's obesity – that leads to unhappiness or the other way around is debatable Obesity is viewed differently in different culture and time periods – in african culture – obese women = beautiful – sign of health (viable offsprings)- sign of wealth – took classic pointing- the definition of a beautiful women- and made them skinnier – to match today's definition of beautiful women Disordered eating Bulimia Nervosa – involves binge eating and purging Anorexia – extremely severely underweight usually – 15-20% usually diagnosed with anorexia – die – occurs at particular time- e.g. hitting puberty; socioeconomic status; white women- Sex – Important thing from kinsei's research – sexual arousal = continuous – instead of checking hetersexual vs homosexual, there was a scale – 100% heterosexuals to homosexual- can be in between -showed that there were a lot of people who had other preferences – What are the arousal/ physiological responses? – Masters and johnson used prostitutes by bringing them into a lab and having them masterbate or having sex- measuring genital arousal and stufff Sex: gender differences – can't ask when where why stuff- because for men it may be anywherer anytiem with anyone- not the same with humans – researches had an attractive male and female walking around asking: –
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