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Lecture 1.docx

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Lecture 1 Personality Psychology  Part I o Overview  Syllabus  25 lectures, 25 text questions o Course description Prologue – the origin theories  The scientific study of the person Level I. Personality Traits/ Disposotions “Sketching the outline”  General, internal, and comparative dispositions accounting for the consistencies we precieve or except in behaviour across situations and time o Person-situation controversy o Heredity-environment controversy o Continuity vs. change of traits over time  Level II. Characteristic adaptation “filling in the details” o Adaptations to the motivational, cognitive, and developmental challenges that people confront across the life span.  Goals & strivings  The self & social cognition  Stages of life-span development  Level III. Life stories “integrating a life” o Internalized and evolving narratives of the self that integrate past, present, and future to provide life with a sense of unity and purpose  Imagery, theme, character  Standards of good life-story form  Psychotherapy as revision of the life story Overview of Part II  Constructs, theories & testable hypothesis  Desiderata for a theory of personality  The legacy of Sigmund Freud Scientific theories  Explicitly defined CONSTRUCTS  Linked by correspondence RULES how one construct is connected to another  Specifying testable HYPOTHESES testable prediction, how things in world should be related to eachother Non-scientific theories  Astrology fails to make prediction that can be falsified  Palmistry ( palm-reading)  Our implicit personality theories Formalizing an informal theory: “ Dependency is unhealthy”  Dependency o Reassurance-seeking o Feeling of loneliness o Fears of abandonment  Personal health o Physical health o Emotional health o Spiritual health  Correspondence rule Dependency Personal health Reassurance-seeking Physical health Feelings of loneliness Emotional health Fears of abandonment Spiritual health Sample Dependency items (DEQ): “if someone I cared about became angry Very wide range if these were administered to the class of 300-400 students In fact, dependency and negative affect are only slightly correlated  Connectedness vs. Neediness We would revise out our hypothesis Desiderata for a scientific theory of personality  Coherent, testable & empirically most important  Comprehensive & parsimonious  Useful & generative A theory must be logical, parts need to hang together, how all constructs hang together as a whole, if incoherent Hypothesis need to be testable, theory must tell what kinds of conditions need to be meet Empirical fact, Comprehensive range of explanatory factor, we prefer the theory that is more comprehensive, explain more than less Parsimonious- simplicity, economy of explanation, elegance, fewer constructs is better Balancing against eachother Useful- prefer theory that provide solutions, psychotherapy came from this Generative- excites people, generates research, makes people think of their types of research The legacy of Sigmund freud  1856-1939  Started out as a neurology researcher, inner conflicts in patients  Introduced the idea of unconscious processes and the “talking cure”  His Complete Works spans 23 volumes  Only complete account of human nature  A dream- hope, aspiration Summary of Part II  Theories consist of CONSTRUCTS that organize referents, or observations of reality. o Constructs are linked via CORRESPONDENCE RULES that state the relationships between them. o Correspondence rules should be stated explicitly to allow TESTABLE HYPOTHESES to be derived from them. o All other things being equal, we prefer the theory that is: o Coherent, Testable, & Empirically Valid o Comprehensive & Parsimonious o Useful & Generative Overview of Part III  Freud & the Psychosexual Stages  Freud & the Structure of Personality  Freud & the Topography of Personality Basic Instincts: Sex & Aggression  The Libido human mind as system, looked at it like a hydraulic system, psychic energy of mind, it comes from instinctual behaviour/force, an life sustaining, need satisfy or pleasure , life sustaining action, pleasure, life sustaining energy, fuelled by libido  Eros (Life) & Thanatos (Dea
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