Part 2 of Course
Change of perspective
- Mathew Sheppard went to a gay bar, met two men, kidnapped, tied to a fence
and died a few days later.
- Until now we would not discuss the perceiver’s point of view.
- How do stereotypes emerge?
- How are stereotypes maintained?
- Who is most likely to be prejudiced?
- How has prejudice changed over time?
- All the point of the view of the perceiver.
What are the effects of prejudice?
- How do people cope with it?
- “The lion’s story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story”
- What the effects of prejudice are on various kinds of people.
- Possession of a trait/characteristic that is devalued by society
- Stigmatized have a “spoiled identity”
- Are discriminated against.
- Types of Stigma (Goffman, 1963)
- Abominations of body: Things that make you look different, (extremely
overweight, deformity, excessive sweating)
- Blemishes of character: (Dementia, mental illness, anorexia or bulimia, and
can include any kind of personality traits.)
- Tribal Markers: Gender, age, clothing, religion, race. (Separation among
people, on tribe or another)
Males: The new targets?
- Are men being discriminated more frequently?
A Model of Stigma Reactions
- Major and O’Brien, 2005.
- Three sings that cause people to make an identify threat appraisal. (I’m being
- A: Collective Representations: Culture, meta-stereotype (Stereotypes that
people have about other people’s stereotypes), Where are you? Black in
Africa is different then in Canada. - B: Situational Cues: Cues communicating stigma relevance, from the
- C: Personal: Individual differences in perception and appraisal. (Personality,
self esteem, how do they identify?)
- D: Threat appraisal: Is Stigma relevant? Am I threatened?
- E: Involuntary responses: Anxiety disruption, vigilance.
- F: Voluntary Responses: Coping with threat, blaming discrimination, limit
social comparisons, dis-identification.
- Outcomes: Self-esteem, performance, health.
- Class Example: How do Muslims cope at the airport?
- Devout Muslims man being cautious, avoiding eye contact at the airport.
- A, B, C: Racisms towards Muslims specifically at airports in North America.
Visibly Muslim, Islam-phobic society.
- D: Makes identity threat appraisal.
- E, F: Becoming stressed, avoiding eye contact.
- G: Scared, nervous, stressed, possible poor health outcomes.
- Am I being judged on the group I am identified with?
Blue-eyed people better then brown-eyed people.
Blue-eyed children felt better than brown-eyed children while brown-eyed
children felt deflated.
Children are able to subjectively feel racism.
Children became nasty, discriminatory.
Superior children became even more different then inferior children.
Stigma’s Self-Protective Properties
Stigma & Self-Esteem
- Stigmatized are disadvantaged economically