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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

I. Auditory Perception Sound waves --> peaks and lowest points are amplitude, which determines our perception of loudness and frequency determines our perception of pitch. Ear Anatomy --> sound waves go into the ear canal, vibrate the ear drum, causing the bones (ossicles) to move back and forth. Their movement vibrate the cochlea. Dierent parts along the cochlea corresponf to dierent frequencies. Between the ears and the brain, sound processing occurs along the auditory pathways --> involves comparing the signals from both ears and analyzing them (intensity, where it came from). Sound entering the left ear is processed by the right side of the brain and one entering the right ear is processes by the left brain. Dorsel where stream --> pathway that process spatial info. Ventral what stream --> determines identication Primary auditory cortex --> 1st place in the cortex How does the auditory system seperate dierent sounds from one another? Sound segregation --> we must be able to seperate the sounds --> we must be able to group or integrate sounds over times (known as sequential sound segregation) Concurrent sound segregation --> 3 dierent sounds added together to lead to a summed wave --> This summed wave goes into our ear and how does the brain seperate them? Auditory System processing receives the summed wave and then seperates them. Grouping principle in audition: Gestalt grouping principle --> if 2 sounds come from a common location, have common frequencies and have common onset, they group together and perceive as one sound. Grouping by freqyency --> As higher freuqncies are added by the intervals of 200Hz, the sound gets deeper and louder --> every single sound can be broken down into frequency components --> even though 11 tones are being added, at the highest freuquency, we only hear one sound, not all 11 at the same time. Mistuning one harmonic, meaning increasing that frequency by 8Hz (4% in total), then increased to 8%, there is a seperate tone present, so it is starting to split into 2 dierent sounds --> sounds are segregating. How we group frequencies over time --> A and B tones are put together: (1) B tone is a bit higher in frequency than the A tone and this is called gallop perception
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