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Lecture 2

PSYB20- week 2.doc

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Mark A.Schmuckler

PSYB20 Week 2 Themes and Theories of Human Development S2. A) A set of concepts that describe and explain some aspect of our experience, a scientific theory – what that scientist believes to be true about their area of development, the purpose of a theory to organize our thinking into a broad way of thinking B) Parsimony= a theory should be concise yet be able to explain a wide range of observations, essentially the theory with the fewest principles win Falsifiability= theory is capable of making future prediction, Heuristic Value = doesn’t limit you for only which the theory was devised, can apply the theory outside original cases S3. -are children innately good or evil, the child does not have a good or evil - nature vs. nurture: what we are talking about here is are human being shaped by their genetic composition or are they shaped by their surrounding and environment, far too simplistic to say one or the other, more of a question of how do the two combine - activity vs. passivity: the Childs own role in his or her own development, are they active ?, or are they a passive recipient in what the world throws at them -continuity: where we see development as being continuous or discontinuous S4. Graph: smooth growth curve ,and there’s no large jumps S5: Graph : Discontinuous development , discrete steps as they age, S6: -quantitative= changes in degree i.e. height, adding little pieces on, changes in amount -qualitative = discontinuous , a change in kind, the organism is fundamentally different than they were before i.e. tadpole to a frog , caterpillars to butterflies - connectedness of development; how much of a relationship/connection between early developmental attributes and later developmental attributes -similarities vs. difference: changes that we experience are they similar or particular in cultures? Person to person?, is everybody ‘s development unique? universal = attainment of language. Sexual maturity S7: - children experience conflict between biological drives and social norms, determines nature of the structure of individuals personality - People who were important Sigmund Freud( psychiatrist, who lived in Vienna nad moved over to England, formulated his theory from observation from life histories of mentally disturbed patients that he treated, focused on childhood + traumatic events, wanted to uncover unconscious motivation- developed psychosexual drives, how parents manages these drives had an impact on their personality ) - the id=biological needs, ego=rational part, direct ids impulses , superego= moral arbiter, made sure the ego fit into internal process, when the baby is born it is pure id, ego emerges within 2 yrs, superego emerges around 6 yrs 1 - believed that during childhood children had sexual impulses =libido, impulses focused on different parts of the body at different ages, the nature in how these impulses were resolves had an impact on personality - oral= the child’s mouth, i.e. sucking, biting etc, this is one of the first stages where early experiences has impact on adult attributes -anal= anal region i.e. ability to go to the bathroom, conflict: toilet training -phallic= genitals, the child begins to develop incestuous desire for their mother, boy is afraid of castration( if his father finds out), the oedipus complex , Electra complex isn’t as strong because females can’t be castrated, identification=superego, women are going to develop weaker superegos than men -latency= libido goes to sleep -genital= beginning of sexual maturation, all of this wakes the libido up, invested in friendships and romantic relationships -one of the first individuals to suggest that much of our behaviour is driven by unconscious motives, and attempting to explain behaviour involves uncovering those unconscious reasons -one of the first to say that early experiences have an impact on adult experiences - overemphasis on sex and sexual desires – because theories derived were from women th in 19 century, extremely sexually repressed time, especially for women, not sure if theories were amicable among different cultures - total lack and observation of children, if boys don’t have a father there at the phallic stage then that identification with the father isn’t there, nature of the child development should be different, some studies say that males who do have a father present are more masculine than those who do not - Eric Ericsson = theory of psychosocial development , expanded on childs conflict, focus was more on social interpersonal factors than sexual desires , first individuals to address that development is a life long process, S8 - the concern of psychology should be focused on directly observed events, we can observes stimuli and reaction to stimuli - goal to create an objective science of psychology - Watson= inspired by Pavlov, animals could learn to associate a neutral stimulus to a response, wanted to know if classical conditioning could be applied to children, Albert 11 months old conditioned to be afraid of soft white rat, how infant begin to learn things , very continuous - Skinner= behaviour was structured by the nature
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