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Lecture 3

PSYB20- week 3.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Mark A.Schmuckler

PSYB10 Week 3 Longitudinal Design - in a longitudinal design, they take a child measure them at point A and take them again and measure them at point B and see if they are differences - there is a significant disadvantage o commitment o drop out, selective attrition o repeated testing o cohort effect due to cultural factors o most common Cross cultural - alternative to longitudinal design - they take children at different age @ a single point - advantage: less time, consuming, less expensive, measured once ( so therefore no selective attrition) - disadvantage: despite convenience , doesn’t provide change in a single individual, BUT - measured between two individuals, cohort effect Sequential strategy - compares/integrates features of longitudinal +cross sectional @ the same time - initial cross-sectional test, asses immediate effect of program(which age it should be applied to )bring them back 2 yrs laterlongitudinal comparison ( enduring impact) - disadvantage: really complicated, has increased in existing literature Comparative Research - studying other species- animal species - ethological - can be powerful-control test& hypothesis which would otherwise be problematic to humans Cross-Cultural Research - attempts to look @ the universality, generality of research - results you see may not be true for all cultures - tests participants from diff. cultural backgrounds, if they are the same across cultures, it gives greater confidence in nature of generalization - most of the time researchers look @ different as a function of culture General Problems w/ Research Contamination – data influence by variables other than those that are being studied, results would be a function of contamination Research Effect- researcher unintentionally effects responses of the participants, i.e. in a study on race the race of experimenter would have an effect on the response Demand characteristics- subtle clues as to how respondents should answer Reconstruction of the past- many # of ways to attain info on development
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