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PSY100H1 Ch6 textbook notes

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 6 Notes How did the behavioural study of learning develop?  Learning is a relatively enduring change in behaviour, one that results from experience. o Learning has adaptation purposes, because animals learn from experiences o Learning is crucial for functioning normal in everyday life  Associations develop through conditioning, a process in which environmental stimuli and behavioural responses become connected o E.g. Dentist  being in pain  The first type of conditioning is classical conditioning, or pavlovian conditioning, occurs when we learn that two types of event go together o E.g. Watch scary movie and our hearts beat faster  The second type of conditioning is operant conditioning, or instrumental conditioning, occurs when we learn that a behaviour leads to a particular outcome o E.g. studying leads to better grades  You can learn by observing others o E.g. learning about new fashions by paying attention to what celebs are wearning  John B. Watson Founded behaviourism, a school of thought based on the belief that animals and humans are born with the potential to learn just about anything  Tabula Rasa is an idea that infants are born with no knowledge and they learning everything from sensory experiences Behavioural Responses are conditioned  Ivan Pavlov worked on digestive system.  Pavlov was interested in salivary reflex – the automatic and unlearned response that occurs when a food stimulus is presented to a hungry animal, including a human.  Pavlov’s Experiment o A neutral stimulus unrelated to the salivary reflex, such as clicking of a metronome, is presented along with a stimulus that reliably produces the reflex, such as food. o The conditioning trial is repeated several times than on critical trials the metronome sound is presented alone and the salivary reflex is measured o Under these conditions Pavlov found that the sound alone activates salivary reflexes  Classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning is type of learning, when a neutral stimulus elicits a reflexive response because it has become associated with a stimulus that already produces that response  Salivation elicited by food is unconditioned response (UR) because it occurred without prior to training o Unconditioned response is an unlearned, automatic behaviour  Food is the unconditioned stimulus (US) in normal reflex response, the food (US) leads to salivation (UR)  Clicking metronome produces salivation only after training, it is conditioned stimulus (CS); produces saliva only after learning o The salivary reflex that occurs when only the conditioned stimulus is presented is conditioned response (CR); it is acquired, learned response o Acquisition  Gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (bond between stimuli is known as contiguity)  Strongest conditioning occurs when there is a very brief delay between CS and US.  I.e. Music before scary scene instead of during or after o Extinction  A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without unconditioned stimulus  i.e. dog hears metronome but no food therefore, he will learn that it is a bad predictor of food and stop salivating to the sound o Spontaneous recovery  A process in which a previously extinguished response re-emerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus  I.e. Dog sees food salivates, when the sound of metronome is heard then it will salivate o Stimulus generalization  Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response  Ie. Sound that sounds like a bell -> salivation o Stimulus discrimination  Differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the US o A second order conditioning  Sometimes a conditioned sti
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