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Lecture

Ch 16 bmod.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
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U

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Ch 16: USING ADVANCED REINFORCEMENT PROCEDURES TO INCREASE A BEHAVIOR Token Reinforcement Systems: Tokens as Conditioned Reinforcers  Poker chips, stars, stamps attached to a chart, check marks in a table, data entries in logs, or specially printed paper money, which can be exchanged for back up reinforcements  Tokens are not originally reinforcing for the person, they come to function as reinforcers through learning, where originally neutral token becomes the conditioned stimulus Pros and Cons of Using Token Reinforcers  PROS ◦ tokens last and can be accumulated, usually enabling us to exchange them for better backup reinforcers ◦ tokens can be given immediately after a desirable behavior to bridge the delay between performing the behavior and getting the tangible, consumable, or activity reinforcer that has been earned ◦ token reinforcers can be applied more easily than other rewards with groups of individuals  CONS ◦ system is complex, staff members need extra training and must keep track of more details than with most other types of reinforcers ◦ tokens need to have certain practical characteristics: They should not be hazardous, should be durable, convenient to store and handle, easy to carry around and dispense, and difficult to steal or counterfeit ◦ young children or those who have poor cognitive abilities may not be able to understand or keep track of tokens and their connection to backup reinforcers Setting Up and Administering Token Systems  Must identify whether each target behavior is a behavioral deficit or an excess  Conduct a functional assessment to identify existing antecedents and consequences of each behavior  Staff members who will implement the system must receive training so that they will know when a target behavior has or has not occurred and how to administer the consequences  Choosing the Tokens: ◦ the larger the variety of reinforcers available for exchange in the token system, the greater the chance that the tokens will maintain their effectiveness and provide strong reinforcement ◦ token reinforcement is more effective when target individuals can select their reinforcers from an array of items rather than having items assigned  Backup Consequences: ◦ response cost: The person pays fines in tokens ◦ findings suggest that punishment by losing tokens is at ◦ least as effective in changing behavior as receiving tokens as rewards ◦ punishment methods can create negative feelings in clients, and token systems can be effective without including response cost  Phasing Out the Token Program: ◦ switch to natural reinforcers ◦ delay opportunities to redeem tokens ◦ decrease the number of tokens a target behavior earns or increase the number of tokens Ch 16: USING ADVANCED REINFORCEMENT PROCEDURES TO INCREASE A BEHAVIOR required to buy backup reinforcers Lottery and Group Contingency Systems Lotteries  All eligible individuals are entered in a drawing to determine one or more prizewinners on the basis of chance  Eligibility to enter lotteries is based on behavior, and the lottery can apply to an individual or a group of people  Lotteries are useful to thin reinforcement schedules or when constraints make it difficult to provide attractive rewards  Potential problem with lotteries is that the likelihood of winning a reinforcer may be set too low, causing performance to suffer Group Contingencies  Whether members of a group receive consequences depends on the performance of all or some of the members ◦ ex. restaurant workers who use a group contingency to share in pooled tips  3 types: 1. Independent, which provides reinforcement only to the members who meet a behavioral criterion 2. Dependent, in which rewards given to the entire group depend on performance of one or some members 3. Interdependent, which requires that the group as a whole or each and every member meet a criterion before rewards are given to all of them  Advantages ◦ Group contingencies are easier to administer, simpler to monitor and keep records on behavior and to dispense reinforcers for a group as a whole than to carry out individually ◦ By relying on one another for reward it builds in incentives to prevent members of the group from reinforcing one another‟s inappropriate responses,. ◦ often promote desirable side effects in the social beh
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