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Ch 15: USING BASIC REINFORCEMENT PROCEDURES TO INCREASEABEHAVIOR Identifying and Strengthening Positive Reinforcers Identifying Potential Reinforcers • Interviews and Questionnaires ◦ identify potential reinforcers ◦ such as the Preferred Items and Experiences Questionnaire (PIEQ) which assesses adolescents’and young adults’preferences for dozens of potential reinforcers ◦ limitations: ▪ these self-report measurements may be less accurate than direct methods ▪ young children and people with developmental disabilities, may be unable to answer the questions even when the items are read to them • DirectAssessment Methods ◦ observing and recording the individual’s reactions toward the stimuli when they occur or are available ◦ Naturalistic observations: ▪ observing the person in their natural environments and recording the frequency and duration of each behavior displayed ◦ Structured tests: ▪ presenting a previously selected set of stimuli and assessing which ones the person prefers ▪ useful when trying to identify reinforcers for individuals who have severe learning or motor disabilities Enhancing Reinforcer Effectiveness • Reinforcer sampling: ◦ an establishing operation (EO) that increases effectiveness by presenting a small or brief sample of the reinforcer before the behavior occurs to increase the likelihood that the person will make the response and get the reinforcer ▪ ex. sampling of food at grocery store encourages purchase • Modeling: ◦ individuals who see others receiving and enjoying pleasant consequences for their behavior tend to increase the value they place on these consequences and copy the behavior they saw the other people do • Explaining or demonstrating; is useful EO for token reinforcers, which have no value without an explanation • Public posting; of performance data is an effective EO, especially if the reinforcer is feedback or praise • Using varied reinforcers; useful because it combats the often decline of the potency of a single reinforcer, when one becomes “used to” it How to Administer Positive Reinforcement Reduce Extraneous Counterproductive Reinforcers • 3 approaches used to stop people from reinforcing someone’s problem behavior: Ch 15: USING BASIC REINFORCEMENT PROCEDURES TO INCREASEABEHAVIOR 1. describe the situation and ask them to stop reinforcing the problem behavior 2. reinforce them for not reinforcing the target person’s problem behavior 3. having the other people share in the rewards the individual earns for improved behavior Who WillAdminister Reinforcement? • Peer-Administered Reinforcement: ◦ using those who can perform the target behavior can monitor other's acts and provide reinforcement for correct responses ◦ individuals requiring the intervention can receive more frequent and individualized help than is available with standard teaching procedures ◦ peers who serve as administrators often gain from the experience themselves • Self-Administered Reinforcement:
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