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Ch 14  Freuds first form of psychotherapy focused on emotionally traumatic events in a patients earlier life o Center of his new idea, formed in teh final few years of the nineteenth century,was that neurotic ppl suffer from inner conflict, for instance, both feeling sexually attracted to someone and feeling at the same time inhibited by the prohibitions of society  Detractors argued that psychoanalysis was less a therapeutic procedure, more a matter for the police  Psychoanalytic therapy used in west culture o Evenly hovering attention-freud proposed a therapy of listening carefully with respect to patients who suffered from emotional disorders like anxiety and depression  Many are eclectic-use different variants into practice  Therapy provides the context of a relationship, in which one may experience ones emotion schemas, understand them better, take responsibiltity for them, and modify some aspects of behaviour  Psychoanalysis: unconscious schemas of relating o Distinctive feature is the recognition of transference of the client to the therapist. Transference is the manifestation of emotion schemas, mental models that embody ways of relating to others that have become habitual. It is perhaps though of as a set of emotional attitudes toward significant others from past and such attitudes and emotion are projected onto ppl in the present, therapist o Psychoanalytic therapy is designed to recognize transferences, and bring them to consciousness. o Emotional schemas that are problematic are often based on intense wishes bound tightly to beliefs that ppl hold about what is wrong with them or how they can never be satistied o The idea of psychoanalysis as the interpretation of transference is that effects of the emotion-realational schema are brought directly into the therapeutic relationship o There is the possibility that when the partly unconscious terms of the schema in which the client in lodged become conscious, the client can choose a new solution in the relationship with the therapist, and this kind of new solution can generalize to other relationships outside therapy  Cognitive-behavioral therapy:changing emotions by thought o Traced back to epicureans and stoics o Epicureans developed ideas of natural human sociality that influences boy American and French revolutions. The idea that human beings have right to pursuit of happiness. Also first in west to discover the unconscious. Ppl fear death, although it must surely be irrational to do so. o The stoics were more radical. They thought that because emotions derive from desires, therefore to free oneself from crippling and destructive emotions, one should extirpate almost all desires o Cognitive behavioural therapy by Beck is based on teaching ppl how to recognize and avoid errors of evaluation about the incidents that lead to emotions. Ex. Clients who suffer from anxiety are told to keep diary o Argued that the patterns of appraisal that cause anxiety and depression tend to involve contextual evaluations that are arbitrary, absolute, and personalizing o Cognitive therapy allows revision both of core beliefs and of plans changing the answer to the question what can i do about it  Emotion-focused therapy: changing emotions by emotions o Only way to change an emotion is by means of another emotion o A person who in life and in therapy is angry may suddenly find her anger change to sadness as she realizes that she too has been partly responsible for some of what she is angry about and that she too has suffered losses o One of the tasks is to to work on clues to build some consciously comprehended model of our goal structure as part of our sense of self o Primary emotions-emotions that we have not allowed ourselves to experience fully enough o Secondary emotions-experience some emotions too much o Often when primary emotions are not known, or accepted, they can metamorphose into secondary emotions o Instrumental emotions-the emotions that ppl have learned will help them get their way- the tears that elicit sympathy, the easy irritation that makes others hesitate to challenge or to be close  Average person receiving therapy was better off than 80% of members of control group who didn’t  Even with empirically supported therapies, many patients don’t get better, and many more do not maintain the gain they make  Antidepressant and transquilizer medications  Psychoanalysis is controversial. For shorter durations, 8-16 sessions, psychodynamic therapy found effective for emotional disorders. Long term hard cause it could take years o Best was up to 3 yrs in sw
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