Chapter 7: Memory
- Removal of temporal lobes -> no ability to form NEW LONG TERM MEMORY.
- Important for declarative memory but less important for implicit processes
(classical conditioning, for learning etc)
BASIC STAGES OF MEMORY
1. Sensory memory
2. Short-term memory
3. Long-term memory
SEONSORY MEMORY IS BRIEF
- Sensory information= light, smell, orders (these leave traces in nerve system)
- Sensory memory= from sensory information, stored briefly in its original sensory
Visual sensory-> Iconic memory
Auditory sensory-> Echoic memory
SHORT TERM MEMORY IS ACTIVE
- Information from sensory stores-> SHORT TERM MEMORY
- Hold information no longer than 20seconds (Disappears unless prevent from
MEMORY SPA &CHUNKING
- Limited to at most 7 times
- Meaningful units easier to remember (chunking: APTUTHI-> APT- UT- HI)
- Active processing system that keep information available so later can use for problem
solving, reasoning& explanation.
1. Central executive
2. Phonological loop
3. Visuospatial sketchpad PSY100H1
Chapter 7: Memory
- coach over interactions between subsystem and LTM.
- Encode information from sensory & filters information that is important enough
to be in LTM.
- 2 subcomponents: 1. Temporary hold auditory 2. Visual information
- Encode AUDITORY INFORMATION
- Is active whenever read, speak/repeat words to remember
- Working memory (Words stored by how it sounds, not meaning)
- Process visual information (object features & locations)
LONG TERM MEMORY VS. SHORT TERM MEMORY
- LTM differ from STM in „ Capacity & Duration‟
- Serial position effect- ability to recall items from list depends on order of
presentation (early & latest remembered better than middle)
- Involves 1. primary effect: better memory for early items
2. recency effect: better memory for recent (latest) items.
What gets into LTM?
- information important to us.
DIFFERENT MEMORY SYSTEMS
(Explicit memory involves conscious effect)
- Remember specific information. (Retrieved in explicit memory-> declarative memory
(content of memory)
- Process of memory (ex. remembering what I had it for dinner/ meaning of words)
Episodic memory: One‟s personal/ past experiences
Semantic memory: One‟s knowledge of trivial/ important facts independent of personal
*These two memory are separate system: Child had brain surgery. Episodic memory
damaged semantic memory intact. Does not remember what they did in the past, BUT
no problem learning knowledge.
IMPLICIT MEMORY OCCURS WITHOUT DELIBERATE (심사숙고함) EFFECT PSY100H1
Chapter 7: Memory
Implicit memory: process people show with any deep thinking/awareness that they are
-Daily experiences: brushing teeth/ remembering how to get to class.
Ex. Fear as going into dentist office due to past experiences
- IMPLICIT MEMORIES
Need no attention * Procedural memory: (Motor memory) involve motor skills, habits,
other behavior to achieve goal. Automatic unconsciousness
Ex. Stop at red light, learned to do so. Therefore, when driving home, automatically
stops without deliberate effort. Involve repetition priming (Improvement in identifying/
processing a stimulus that had previously been experience)
LONG-TERM MEMORY IS TEMPORAL SEQUENCE
3 Stages of memory: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
Encoding: Processing of information so that it can be stored.
Storage: Retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some
change in the nervous system that registers the event.
Retrieval: Act of recalling/remembering the stored information in order to use it.
LONG TERM STORAGE IS BASED ON MEANING
Memories stored by meaning.
* Maintenance rehearsal: type of encoding involving continually repeating an item
* Elaborative rehearsal: encoding of information in more meaningful fashion, such as
linking to knowledge in long-term memory.
Schemas provide an organizational framework
Schemas: hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process &
- help sort out incoming info & guide our attention to relevant features of
- Influence which info is stored in memory. (Ex. Hellen Keller & Carol Harris.
Participants who were told to be a story of Hellen Keller imagined to be heard
her as deaf, mute, blind. Even though nothing was mentioned about it.)
INFORMATION IS STORED IN ASSOCIATION NETOWKRS
Node: each unit of information in network.
- Activating 1 node increase the likelihood that closely associated nodes will also PSY100H1
Chapter 7: Memory
Retrieval cue provide access to Long term storage
- Retrieval cue: Anything that helps access info from LTM, and help us to sort
through vast amount of data stored in LTM to identify the right info.
- Any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory
for the experience.
- Context dependent memory: Enhancement of memory when recall situation is
similar to encoding situation.
- State dependent Memory: Enhancement of memory when there is a match
between internal states (Mood, inebriation) during encoding & recall.
MEMORY & LOCATION
- Memory is distributed throughout the brain rather than in any specific location
- Memories are stored in multiple regions in brain & linked together through
THE MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBES ARE IMPORTANT FOR CONSOLIDATION OF
- Consist of # of structure