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University of Toronto St. George
Damian Dupuy

PSY100H1 Chapter 7: Memory Temporal Lobes - Removal of temporal lobes -> no ability to form NEW LONG TERM MEMORY. - Important for declarative memory but less important for implicit processes (classical conditioning, for learning etc) BASIC STAGES OF MEMORY 1. Sensory memory 2. Short-term memory 3. Long-term memory SEONSORY MEMORY IS BRIEF - Sensory information= light, smell, orders (these leave traces in nerve system) - Sensory memory= from sensory information, stored briefly in its original sensory form Visual sensory-> Iconic memory Auditory sensory-> Echoic memory SHORT TERM MEMORY IS ACTIVE - Information from sensory stores-> SHORT TERM MEMORY - Hold information no longer than 20seconds (Disappears unless prevent from happening) MEMORY SPA &CHUNKING - Limited to at most 7 times - Meaningful units easier to remember (chunking: APTUTHI-> APT- UT- HI) WORKING MEMORY - Active processing system that keep information available so later can use for problem solving, reasoning& explanation. 3 components 1. Central executive 2. Phonological loop 3. Visuospatial sketchpad PSY100H1 Chapter 7: Memory Centural Executive - coach over interactions between subsystem and LTM. - Encode information from sensory & filters information that is important enough to be in LTM. - 2 subcomponents: 1. Temporary hold auditory 2. Visual information Phonological Loop - Encode AUDITORY INFORMATION - Is active whenever read, speak/repeat words to remember - Working memory (Words stored by how it sounds, not meaning) Visuospatial Sketchpad - Process visual information (object features & locations) LONG TERM MEMORY VS. SHORT TERM MEMORY - LTM differ from STM in „ Capacity & Duration‟ - Serial position effect- ability to recall items from list depends on order of presentation (early & latest remembered better than middle) - Involves 1. primary effect: better memory for early items 2. recency effect: better memory for recent (latest) items. What gets into LTM? - information important to us. DIFFERENT MEMORY SYSTEMS (Explicit memory involves conscious effect) Explicit memory - Remember specific information. (Retrieved in explicit memory-> declarative memory (content of memory) - Process of memory (ex. remembering what I had it for dinner/ meaning of words) Episodic memory: One‟s personal/ past experiences Semantic memory: One‟s knowledge of trivial/ important facts independent of personal experiences. *These two memory are separate system: Child had brain surgery. Episodic memory damaged semantic memory intact. Does not remember what they did in the past, BUT no problem learning knowledge. IMPLICIT MEMORY OCCURS WITHOUT DELIBERATE (심사숙고함) EFFECT PSY100H1 Chapter 7: Memory Implicit memory: process people show with any deep thinking/awareness that they are remembering something. -Daily experiences: brushing teeth/ remembering how to get to class. Ex. Fear as going into dentist office due to past experiences - IMPLICIT MEMORIES Need no attention * Procedural memory: (Motor memory) involve motor skills, habits, other behavior to achieve goal. Automatic unconsciousness Ex. Stop at red light, learned to do so. Therefore, when driving home, automatically stops without deliberate effort. Involve repetition priming (Improvement in identifying/ processing a stimulus that had previously been experience) LONG-TERM MEMORY IS TEMPORAL SEQUENCE 3 Stages of memory: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Encoding: Processing of information so that it can be stored. Storage: Retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event. Retrieval: Act of recalling/remembering the stored information in order to use it. LONG TERM STORAGE IS BASED ON MEANING Memories stored by meaning. * Maintenance rehearsal: type of encoding involving continually repeating an item * Elaborative rehearsal: encoding of information in more meaningful fashion, such as linking to knowledge in long-term memory. Schemas provide an organizational framework Schemas: hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process & use information. - help sort out incoming info & guide our attention to relevant features of environment. - Influence which info is stored in memory. (Ex. Hellen Keller & Carol Harris. Participants who were told to be a story of Hellen Keller imagined to be heard her as deaf, mute, blind. Even though nothing was mentioned about it.) INFORMATION IS STORED IN ASSOCIATION NETOWKRS Node: each unit of information in network. - Activating 1 node increase the likelihood that closely associated nodes will also PSY100H1 Chapter 7: Memory activate. Retrieval cue provide access to Long term storage - Retrieval cue: Anything that helps access info from LTM, and help us to sort through vast amount of data stored in LTM to identify the right info. ENCODING SPECIFICITY - Any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience. - Context dependent memory: Enhancement of memory when recall situation is similar to encoding situation. - State dependent Memory: Enhancement of memory when there is a match between internal states (Mood, inebriation) during encoding & recall. MEMORY & LOCATION - Memory is distributed throughout the brain rather than in any specific location („Equipotentiality‟) - Memories are stored in multiple regions in brain & linked together through memory circuits THE MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBES ARE IMPORTANT FOR CONSOLIDATION OF DECLARATIVE MEMORY - Consist of # of structure
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