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PSY100.Lecture (7).docx

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Dan Dolderman

PSY100: Social Psychology The Psychology of “Normal” -what is ‘normal’? -if you want to have a grasp of what people are like, the starting point is yourself -people who _____ > me are: -people who _____ < me are:  responsible, anal vs. slackers  messy: neat freaks vs. slobs  energetic, manic vs. boring Naïve Realism -the general assumption (usually left implicit and unexamined) that we see reality accurately, correctly, that we are normative, we make sense -we therefore can use our understanding of ourselves as a basis from which to judge others -people who are similar to us are obviously also nice, decent people like we are -but people who are different from us, they are weird, deviant, deficient in some way Me: A Somewhat Better Version of Normal -and we are pretty good, better than average, in fact -ex. people prefer their own belonging, the letters of their name, and believe that for most things, they are ‘better than average’ -90% of adults claim that they are better-than-average drivers, even if they have been hospitalized for injuries caused by car accidents -out of 800 000 people, not a single one rated themselves as “below average” in “social skills”, and 25% said they were in the top 1% I’m OK… You’re Not OK -we like ourselves -our”selves”, interestingly, the “self” is whatever we conceptualize it to be, the “self” is whatever we identify with -a things becomes worth significantly more value once it’s ours, even a pen or coffee cup that we’ve owned for two minutes  the endowment effect -our house is a home, other houses are just houses -our pain and suffering is a huge tragedy that our friends should totally care about and listen to use whine about, others’ suffering is not as important The Fundamental Attribution Error -our self-protective biases play a role in how we explain our and others’ behaviours -we are good at blaming our own undesirable behaviours on “other factors” but taking full responsibility for when things turn out well -and of course, we blame other people for their failings, and don’t give them enough credit for what they’re going through Ingroup Favouritism – Outgroup Derogation -we extend our self-serving biases to whatever we identify with, such as our in- groups -we are better than they, it doesn’t take much to prefer “us” vs. “them”  ex. minimal group paradigm (Tajfel and Turner)  see how the “us” vs. “them” way of thinking happens and how easily it happens  bring people into the lab, randomly assigned people to different groups  almost instantaneously, people start to identify with their group  with no rational, we start to identify that with which we associate with ourselves -this is very comforting, it means that when we see atrocities and horrible acts committed by other people, we can assume they are “not like us”, there’s something wrong with them Self and Other -integration: belonging, conformity, in-group biases, need for closeness, social support and validation -differentiation (pull self and other apart): individualism, power, outgroup derogation, uniqueness, independence -conflicting findings that we want integration and differentiation  may be true at different times, may be true in a dynamic balance with each other Social Psychology -B = f(P x E)  behaviour is a function of the person and the environment If All Your Friends Jumped Off A Bridge, Would You? -the power of social influence -in some ways, we all know that social norms are important (ex. choosing what to wear) -good Samaritan study: on time vs. late Social Influence -the power of social norms: fashion, binge drinking, smoking, hair styles, music -we are usually not conscious of the impacts that social norms have on our behaviours The Power of the Situation -Kitty Genovese: New York, 1964 -she gets attacked, she screams, someone shouts something from a window, the guy runs away, she had been stabbed, stumbles into an alley, guy comes back -thirty-eight who saw the murder didn’t call the police -maybe the reason no one did anything was because so many people were watching Diffusion of Responsibility -more people involved in a scene, the less responsibility someone will take on -“someone else will do it” -individuals take responsibility (ex. self-awareness studies on money, Halloween candy, value-congruence)  as people become more self-aware, they are more responsible  people are less likely to take money on a table if there is a mirror there -but group members can act very differently, losing their individual identity in the group and thereby feeling excused of their actions as the group members validate each other’s perspectives -being violent and nasty and “doing your best,” helping, making a difference, standing up for what’s right are much easier to do in a group Seizure Study -likelihood of person to help varies depending on the amount of people involved Smoke Filled Room -bring people into a lab, sit down and fill out questions -from a vent, smoke starts wafting into the room -vary how many people are in the room doing this -if it’s one person, report smoke faster -if it’s a group, report smoke slower -pluralistic ignorance: disjunction between private beliefs and public behaviours -also applies to repressive political systems, destructive social patterns (racism), unhealthy behaviours (binge drinking), not putting your hand up in class, not taking action o climate change Uncertainty and Social Norms -when situations are ambiguous and we’re not sure what to do or what is right, we rely upon others to help us make these judgements, and we often come to believe in these judgements -when we’re not sure what is r
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