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PSY100.Lecture (6).docx

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Dan Dolderman

PSY100: Emotions and Motivation Motivation -goals that are fueled by emotions have a lower chance of sticking because emotions don’t last that long and change, need a constant input of emotion to keep motivated Heuristics -cognitive shortcuts -another way in which we deceive ourselves -ex. stereotypes and social scripts (social situations invoke understanding) -there are some common reasoning heuristics that we employ much of the time, leading to less-than-ideal decisions in many circumstance Ellen Langer: Photocopy Study -line of people waiting to use photocopier -different conditions (go to front of line and say): • “excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine?” • “excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine, because I’m in a rush” • “excuse me, may I use the Xerox machine, because I have to make copies” -second and third condition got about the same acceptance response -if you’re using heuristics, not thinking through the situation, hear because and assumes that something important will follow that will justify the request Who Is This? -let me describe someone I know… he’s short, slim, and likes to read poetry • who is it more likely to be? truck driver or classics professor?  more likely to think that it’s a professor • statistically, more truck drivers than classics professors, if you were to pick a person at random it would be more likely to be a truck driver • if we were consciously processing this information we would use critical thinking to figure this out but we use heuristics to use stereotypes Ignoring Base Rates -the representativeness heuristic: making decisions based on the extent to which information seems similar to a category you have in mind -ex. doctors often ignore base rates of illnesses when making diagnoses, investors often ignore base rates of business failure in a sector when making investment decisions -although not usually thought of in these ways, the fundamental attribution error (tendency to infer someone’s personality based on their behaviour) involves this basic process • when we see a certain kind (category) of behaviour, we look for a “representative” explanation, such as the explanation that the person is just that kind of person, ignoring the ‘base rate’ represented by the situation’s common influence over people • ex. rude behaviour = rude person, helpful behaviour = helpful, kind person The Power of Labels -ex. framing effects • why should you take the stairs instead of the elevator?  “save the world” or “tone your butt” • why would the USA change the name of the War Department to the Defense Department? • why do Conservatives say “the oil sands” and activists say “the tar sands”? • is “global warming” happening or “global climate destabilization”? -ex. paying more for an airplane ticket • “carbon offset”  65% of Republicans in favour • “carbon tax”  27% of Republicans in favour Exaggerating the Improbable -availability heuristic: the tendency to judge the probability of an event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances (ex. is there a larger number of words beginning with K or words having K as the third letter) -we’ll think things are much more probable if we can easily think of examples • what’s scarier, smoking or flying? o smoking takes, on average, five years off your life (50% chance of early death due to smoking) o flying takes on average, about one day off your life (far less than 1% change of early death due to flying) Mislead by Availability -we often use the availability heuristic to our own detriment, without being aware of it -ex. mood-congruent processing (interpretation, attributions, memories)  positive vs. negative information being differently accessible -the availability heuristic can explain many other phenomena • egocentric biases: Ross and Siccoly  what proportion of the housework do you do? generally adds up to more than 100% • do not generally try to disprove our thinking The Confirmation Bias -the tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one’s own beliefs -we tend to ask questions that confirm our suspicions, or that are consistent with the hypothesis we are testing -ex. business managers believe they have a good sense of people, and are especially good at predicting who is going to be successful  they keep track of their hires to go on to be successful, but don’t keep as close tabs on those who are failures and especially forget about those they didn’t hire who go on to be successful -we are good decision makers, sometimes, it depends whether or not our heuristics are helping us or leading us astray -by becoming more mindful of one’s thinking processes, you can reduce the costs and risks of heuristic processing, and make more intelligent decisions and become more difficult for others to manipulate Emotion Is What You Are -perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind as you are learning about emotion, is that emotions involve your whole being  they are “emotional” processes, but also “cognitive” and “physiological” processes as well -one implication is that, what you do your body and your mind is the emotional experience you will end up having, the emotional life you will end up being -a second implication is that your life is very strongly determined by your emotions, and you are often “out of control” of these processes (ex. best times, stupidest mistakes, etc.) Homoeconomicus -to the extent that people have internalized, such that their goals are financial security, the less happy they are -a host of issues: unfulfilled, not thriving in life, extrinsically motivated and “inauthentic”, defensive, negative emotions are frequent Goals and Motivation -despite the early dominance of behaviourist approaches, psychologists now recognize the intimate role that top-down processes (i.e. meaning, construal, interpretations) play in determining how our motivational systems function -how do we get people to stop doing the bad things, and get them to start doing good things? Overjustification Effect -1973 – markers + “good player” award • kids who got the good player award for playing with markers are less likely to play with markers than the kids who didn’t get awarded • instead of believing they were playing with the markers because its fun, they believe they did it for the award and don’t have fun playing with the markers -if you award people for something they like doing, they will start liking it less The Continuum of Motivation -do they feel like the motivation comes from within or because someone is telling you to -you can motivate people through a variety of different methods • external regulation: rewards, punishments, authority, command, social pressures • introjected regulation: partial internalization of reward/punishment, contingent self-esteem, ego-involvement • identified/integrated regulation: personal valuation and importance, integration with values, life goals, self-concept, etc. • intrinsic regulation: doing for the sake of doing, engagement, flow, enjoyment, growth, challenge, etc. -people are less able to sustain motivation when it comes from extrinsic reasons -the more you use external regulation to motivate someone, the more you take away their intrinsic motivation The Source of One’s Motivations -intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation -intrinsic motivation: “the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise one’s capacities, to explore, and to learn” • doing for the sake of doing/meaning (integrity, values, purpose, etc.) -intrinsic motivation is self-directed and self-sustaining  greater persistence and more disciplined goal pursuit -giving an extrinsic reason for something you enjoy, removes some of the intrinsic motivation Healthy Development -Csikzentmihalyi and flow; Ryan and Deci and Self-Determination Theory -ex. think back to high school, did you go to class and engage in extracurricular activities after school, or did you skip class to play cards and go drinking? -more generally, why do some people make it through their teenage years with vitality, hope, and a general sense that their lives are good and they can pursue meaningful goals, whereas other fall off the tracks? -consequences: using “experience sampling methods” teens who thrive were found to spend a much higher proportion of time in Flow activities (i.e. intrinsic interest, high degree of challenge, intense concentration, absorption in the moment) and less on unstructured time (TV time, bumming around) -autonomy: family support independence, self-direction, challenging and fun intrinsic pursuits -relatedness: healthy peer context, mentors, family support, social skills, modeling -competence: goal oriented, mastery oriented, growth mindset, success experiences and feedback, practice -lack of these creates a vulnerability, lack of identity -conclusion: those who thrive are those who engage themselves in activities that develop their talents -key factors: • “enjoyment” (this is not pleasure, but more like effortful, absorbe
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