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PSY100.Lecture (5).docx

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Dan Dolderman

PSY100: Memory “Modal” Model of Memory -Shiffrin and Atkinson -describes different memory systems that function to store information in different ways -different systems focus on different time scales -sensory memory: instantaneous, stores a lot of information -what you pay attention to is what’s transferred from sensory memory to short- term memory -short-term memory: temporary short-termed memory system, unrehearsed information is lost -long-term memory -at every stage there is a funneling of information -mysterious how we store things into long-term memory, sometimes information does not need to be processed deeply to keep it in memory Sensory Memory -a memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information -information that is not quickly passed to short-term memory is gone forever -these systems may allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream of experience, weaving together the past and present seamlessly Sperling Memory Example -looking at short-term memory system -how much can we remember at any given point in time? -give people a grid, flash it to them, ask people to recall some piece of it (bottom row, left-hand column) Sensory Memory is Brief -iconic memory was demonstrated in Sperling’s classic experiment (exposure = 1/20 of a second), and lasts about 1/3 second -echoic memory (lasts about 2 seconds), track language and conversation -iconic and echoic memory systems may allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream Attention and Memory -attention is the process that moves information from the sensory store to short- term memory -spotlight of attention Inattentional Blindness -what we don’t shine the spotlight of attention on, we may not even see, and do not store in memory Short-Term Memory -a limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods; it is also used to hold information retrieved from long-term memory for temporary use (20-30 seconds) -note: working memory models have elaborated upon this considerably -three main systems: phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive -STM is like a workbench with approximately seven items on it (7 +/- 2), when a new item is put on the bench, another falls off -we overcome the limits of short-term memory through chunking (storing information in units of meaning) Transfer from STM to LTM -for information to be remembered, it needs to be transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory -learning how to get better at this will make you a better student Levels of Processing Model -Craik and Lockhart -the ease with which we can retrieve a memory depends on the number and types of associations that we form with that memory -LTM storage is base on meaning, we do not file our memories under some sort of code system, like old library card stacks -instead we store memories based on meaningful associations -note: deeper levels of processing = greater amount of neural activity -ex. how to memorize decks of cards with a single exposure Encoding Strategies -the more meaning, the better Retrieval Cues Provide Access to Long-Term Storage -retrieval cues increase the accessibility of related neural nets, which is why recognition is easier to recall -the “encoding specificity principle” states any stimulus encoded with an experience can become a trigger Context Dependent Memory -place = retrieval cues: place characteristics like sound, visual cues, room size, odours, etc., all get encoded with the material you’re remembering ex. Smith et al., 1978 • 80 words: same room = 49; different = 35 -even state dependent memory effects have been found; one’s emotional or physiological state can become part of one’s memory system for information (ex. be careful when hiding your paycheque – hides it in old pair of jeans when intoxicated, couldn’t remember what he had done with it, when in a similar intoxicated state suddenly remembered where it was) -compared peoples’ ability to remember info when intoxicated or sober and whether they learned it intoxicated or sober • people who learned information intoxicated remembered it better when intoxicated than when sober When Storage Breaks Down: H.M. -major epileptic seizures started at age 16 -in the mid 1950s, Henry underwent brain surgery, removing much of his temporal loves (including his hippocampus) -suddenly, he was stuck in time, unable to encode new memories, every moment was a new moment -“Right now, I’m wondering, have I done or said anything amiss? You see, at this moment everything looks clear to me, but what happened just before? That’s what worries me. It’s like waking from a dream. I just don’t remember.” H.M. -Henry could not remember anything new, but he could still store information in short-term, working memory (therefore STM and LTM involve different systems) -he could also recall old memories (11-year gap before surgery though) -lost ability to transfer memories from STM to LTM -Henry’s case provided the key piece of evidence that the ability to transfer information into long-term memory was localized in the hippocampus, but that the storage of such memories was distributed more widely -then researchers discovered that Henry could still learn motor skills Long-Term Memory -the memory system involved in the long-term storage of information • declarative memory: episodic memory, semantic memory • implicit memory: procedural memory, classical conditioning, priming Priming Effects -priming effects happen because we organize our memories in these networks of associations (although keep in mind that in reality, the networks are not built out of nodes, like this diagram represents, but out of distributed patterns of neural firing), this helps us organize our thinking, optimizes the efficiency with whic
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