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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12: Psychology of Prejudice Lecture 2: Origins of Stereotypes Class overview  Prejudice today  Movie True Colours o Discussion  Origin of Stereotypes o Cognitive o Environmental o Socio-cultural & Motivational Discrimination when buying a new car  How would we study the existence of race/gender discrimination in car buying? o Send people into the field o Experimentally controlled study o Control their behaviour o Dress them all the same (neutral dress code) o Go to a few car dealership within the region o Ask about the same car model  Answer: 4 TWIN TESTERS o Age o Education o Attractiveness o Dress o Script o Same dealer o Same car  Multiple exemplars from each category of people ( black and white male & black and white females) and car dealerships Ayres & Siegelman, (1995) Initial Quote for a new car by Race and Gender 20400 20200 20000 19800 White 19600 Black 19400 Initial Price ($) 19000 18800 Male Female Social role  In this study we can see white males are offered less price on a car in comparison to the black males  As for females; white females are offered less pricing for a car than black females o White male: $19 225 o Black male: $ 20 200 o White female: $19 335 o Black female: $ 19 600 Discrimination when buying a new car  Why would salespeople: o Ask more money from women?  Stereotype that women are incapable of rational thinking  Women don't know much about cars  Women tend to be nicer and more agreeable o Ask more money from Blacks?  Association with race and education  More white males working as car dealers  Ask more money from black Movie Time! True Colours  Why does discrimination exist? Fear.  Why do stereotypes exist? Because of the behavior of the type of people and the environment. Origins of Stereotypes: Cognitive Categorization  Hassidic Jews: black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet “sideburns”, religious Categorization  Why categorize? 1. Infinite number of stimuli in environment 2. Limited capacity cognitive system  We can't process all the info in the social world, this is why we create groups 3. Essential part of learning  If we get rid of prejudice, we get rid of learning 4. Occurs spontaneously  Don't need to think about it actively  Our mind is set in a way that categorize things we perceive. If we don't categorize objects and not put label we will end up seeing new things. Therefore once u learn something u keeps it in ur head and categorize it in such a way to prevent yourself from being overwhelmed.  In this study we see the Jews figure. U learn what and who they r and when u see them another time u know who they r.  We don’t just perceive table we see objects and shapes and then we know what to do with them. The problem we over generalize when we categorize.  We get rid of stereotyping we get rid of learning. Because we associate things based on what we learn or see  This study is of group of people and discusses the play they seen together. After the study they were given questionnaire and were asked who said what. The people did a lot of mistakes and so therefore they associated what they think who said what in to different category. They have used categorizing and short- cut based on what they knew and answered the questionnaire Categorization & Stereotypes  Stereotypes are traits associated with category o Positive, negative, neutral traits  Can be useful in making predictions o Example if u need an answer on religion you will approach someone who is religious based on what u see them as o e.g. Jewish read the bible  Are based on a “kernel of truth” o e.g., Jewish people tend to read the bible  Are fast & efficient o Don't need to think actively  But, they are also over-generalizations; especially when applied to an individual o Not everyone does a specific thing e.g., Not all Jewish people study/read the bible Groups  Categorize world into in-groups & out-groups o In-group: Groups to which we belong  E.g., Torontonian, Indian, Canadian, etc. o Out-group: Groups to which we do not belong  E.g., American, male, Christian  This simplifies social world Us vs. Them  Some groups known to be permeable and can change from one group to another Groups (Consequences)  Categorizing accentuates inter-group differences o Problematic because of their extreme distance they create to one another. o -When u dehumanize a group is easier to treat them poorly.  Tend to think positively of in-group, IG bias o Our groups are an extension of us o We tend to think people belong to our group share uniqueness and the other groups are different and don't have any uniqueness to them o Even minimal groups—camp! Different colour groups; like your own colour group and not others (love in-group and not out-group)  Tend to think of out-groups as all the same, OG homogeneity Origin of Stereotypes: Environmental Both are innocent victims of Toronto gunplay! We still hear about Creba! The Media  Is the Media accurately portraying reality? o Jane Creba is well known to many but not Chantel Dunn. Both victims were in the parking lot caught by a gunfight. However Chantel didn't make the front-page news. The news that was received had to do with their race. Jane is white and Chantel is black. o The media is bias in what they say. The way we can answer this question is what makes the news and what does not. o It sk
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