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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12: Psychology of Prejudice Lecture 3: Maintenance of Stereotypes Class overview  Maintenance of stereotypes o Cognitive  Confirmation Bias  Perceptual  Behavioral o Motivational Origin of Stereotypes: Socio-cultural & Motivational Maintenance of Stereotypes: Cognitive  The same things that keep stereotypes going could be the reason for its origin.  Cognitive: Saves energy, save our mind; mental shortcut. Cognitive can help us to extend.  Confirmation bias: o Perceptual & behavioral: We don't see the world as it is but we see it as we r therefore stereotypes can be seen by the way we see things. o Motivational: Stereotypes feels good therefore makes us feel good about ourselves. o Video: Is about Hannah who had to be viewed as black man when she was convicted, therefore representation of bias. Racists for Obama (True Story)  Nov. 3, 2008 | Sean Quinn, of the polling site FiveThirtyEight, respected for its obsessiveness and eerie prescience, recently posted a hair-raising story about a pair of Barack Obama supporters. Quinn seems ready to verify its source, but only after the election. At any rate, it goes like this: A man canvassing for Obama in western Pennsylvania asks a housewife which candidate she intends to vote for. She yells to her husband to find out. From the interior of the house, he calls back, "We're voting for the nigger!" At which point the housewife turns to the canvasser and calmly repeats her husband's declaration. o A racist person voted for Obama Subtyping  Re-fence stereotype-disconfirming individuals o By having a subtype, you can dislike the group but like certain members in the group (e.g. Michael Jordan is my favourite basketball player, but I don't like black groups as a whole)  Allows for maintenance of stereotypes & prejudice  Allows people to feel non-prejudiced o May not feel prejudiced because they like for e.g., certain black people (Bill Cosby or Michael Jordan), so this indicates that they're not racist  Don Sheri, supporter of hockey and known to be a racist towards European players and Canadian players from the French side. He is known also to be a nationalist. He says I am not racist but yet says racist things towards groups. He claims that he has friends who r black and French. He claims he has friends.  Prince: Reminder of a movie about a scene where the pizza shop owner lives in black neighborhood but yet shows cues of being racist. He likes black actors and musicians how is that possible? The reason being is because he sees that actors and musicians r different from regular blacks. He therefore categorize the blacks in his mind and disconfirming people even though they r of the same race.  *Applying stereotypes can save cognitive resources* ... it can help me not to think thoroughly about things Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen, 1994  Humans have developed cognitive “tools” allowing us to analyze social environment efficiently o To be able to get through the environment, we use physical and mental tools. Therefore stereotype is a mental tool to make our life easier and help us get through life.  Stereotypes are one of these “tools:” 1. They allow us to forego effortful individuation 2. They make useful predictions (kernel of truth) 3. When taxed, people use stereotypes (used when busy; shortcut)  Are stereotypes energy-saving devices? Yes, when people are busy, they use it as a mental shortcut. Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen, 1994  Participants performed two tasks simultaneously (two tasks at once)  Task 1—Impression formation: o Name followed by 10 trait terms (given one at a time)  e.g. Nigel: aggressive, smart, likes leather, etc. and asked to remember this o Half given a stereotypic label (e.g. doctor, artist, skinhead). Half given no label.  e.g. Nigel: skinhead, artist, etc. o Half of the traits were stereotypic, half neutral  Task 2—Information Monitoring o Ps heard a 2 minute passage on Indonesia  Dependent Variable: Recall of traits with appropriate targets; performance on multiple-choice test on passage 5 Study 1—results 4  Results confirmed predictions: 3  Stereotypes improved recall  For stereotypic and neutral items 2  Improved MC performance C1nsistent Recall Graph # 1 Stereotype No Stereotype  Nigel: skinhead, likes leather, etc.  Mary is a doctor 2.5  Stereotypical label 2  Better able to remember the traits that 1.5 are stereotypical 1 Graph # 2 Neutral Recall  They remember the neutral traits: Nigel is smart, Mary likes the colour pink 0 Stereotype No Stereotype  They remember a category label Graph # 3 10  Performance on multiple-choice test on passage was better if they recalled 8 stereotypical label  Save cognitive resources and focus on 6 something else (remember the passage)  Improves MC MC Performance 4 Stereotype No Stereotype Who is this?  Male, homeless, old, White, photogenic, grumpy  The way we answer depends on what we're like o The world appears not so much as it is, but as we are. (nature of our beliefs) Bruner & Goodman, 1947  Study # 1:  They had children estimate several disks by size and color. Then pennies were used. Despite these disks being the same size they found that people are more accurate when disks were presented but when coins were presented they saw the size of the coins bigger. Therefore people put value on these objects that’s why they see it bigger. The kind of ideas we see in our heads can physically change what we actually see.  Children estimate the size of diff disks  Disks of various diameters  Some disks were grey  Some exact size of disk was same size of coins  Despite these disks being the same size  When these grey disks, people were less accurate of these disks  When disks were actual coins, they were bigger than they actually were  Bigger value of coin, the bigger it was  Quarter was 45% bigger than its actual size  Given values to these given coins  The more value they have the bigger we actually see of the coin in terms of physical size Bruner & Goodman, 1947  Study # 2:  Kids who are 10 yrs old looking at coins and asked about their size. They break down was rich kids with poor kids. If money is important in your life u see the coins larger.  Only looking at coins between rich and poor kids if money is meaningful to you, you see it as larger in size  Same thing happens with people relates to confirmation bias Confirmation Bias (perception)  Stereotypes bias information in confirmatory manner o Confirming info more fully processed o Ambiguous info seen as stereotype confirming  So if I encounter something in my environment that is consistent with what I believe in, I'm very likely to notice it  And I may look at ambiguous things, as consistent with my info as well  Man in the photo, he is smiling or angry  If we encounter someone like this, we may assume it's an angry face rather than a smiling face Facing Prejudice  Can prejudice bias perceptions of facial emotion? o Can it change how we perceive face? Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003: Study  Prejudice can actually change in the way we see facial expression? Yes.  A black face and lighter face  Presented these faces one by one  These faces slowly start changing; expression go from happiness to anger  In the study they asked the participants to press the button when the face changes, and they showed one face at a time Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003: Results  Prejudiced White Ss saw anger (stereotyped behavior) appear more quickly on the face of Blacks o Those who are high in prejudice, saw the black face get angrier faster than the lighter face even though they are exactly the same. o Same results if the faces went from angry to happy anger lasted longer on the black face than on a white face o The result of the st
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