Class Notes (808,489)
Canada (493,250)
Psychology (3,455)
PSY100H1 (1,606)

Lecture 02.pdf

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Alison Luby

Jason Ho Introductory Psychology Page 1 PSY100H1 July 4, 13 Lecture Notes Lecture Two: Research Methods Scientific Method Outline Critical Evaluation: Ignaz Semmelweis & Childbed (Puerperal) Fever (1847) th Childbed fever was common in the mid -19 century hospitals and had a mortality rate between 10– 35%. While working as an assistant at the Maternity Department of the Vienna Lying -in Hospital a colleague was injured while performing an autopsy, subsequently fell ill and died of the same symptoms. Deducing that the instruments, people and area were contaminated, he instituted mandatory hand washing. After instituted hand washing with chlorinated lime solutions for interns who had performed autopsies, child mortality rates at the hospital dropped from 10% to 1–2%. Scientific Method Scientific inquiry helps us to: – Describe what happens – Predict when it happens – Control what causes it to happen – Explain why it happens Scientific method – a systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to obtain these four goals of scientific inquiry – A theory (explanation for a large number of interconnected ideas and concepts that we observe in the natural world) helps us make predictions about future events. – A good theory allows us to generate a hypothesis (a testable prediction derived from a theory). – Once you formulated a hypothesis, you engage in research (a systematic and careful collection of data [objective observations or measurements]). After the data has been collected, you evaluate it to see if your hypothesis (theory) has been supported. – To be reassured in the results, the theory should be refined by generating a new hypothesis and subsequently have the results replicated. If the data is not supported by the hypothesis, you should discard it or revise and retest the theory. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Reference: Research Methods(1).pdf, , , Jason Ho Introductory Psychology Page 2 PSY100H1 July 4, 13 Descriptive Research Descriptive studies (e.g., observational studies) Naturalistic observation – watching behaviour in real -world settings, observers do not change or alter the ongoing behaviour Advantages Limitations – A good first step in resea rch when trying to – Reactivity (subject is consciously aware they decide whether some phenomenon exist s. are being studied and change their – High degree of external validity (the extent to behaviours) which we can generalize our findings to the – Observer bias (systematic errors caused by real world) observer’s expectations) Participant observation – similar to naturalistic observation, but the researcher is actively involved in the situation Case study – examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period The American Crowbar Case by Dr. John Harlow Phineas P. Gage (1823 -1860) An American railway construction foreman suffered a construction accident in which a large iron rod was driven through his head where much of his left frontal lobe was destrreportedly affecting his personality and behaviour. This case study profoundly influenced nineteenth -century discussion about the mind and brain, particularly debate on cerebral localization. Case Study Designs Advantages Limitations – Helpful in demonstrating that a given – Depth of description is traded for breadth of psychological phenomenon can occur applicability to the population – Can study rare phenomena – Can be misleading and anecdotal – Can see what you expect to see Self-report methods include questionnaires that ask people to provide information about themselves (e.g., surveys [measures a large sample of people’s opinions, attitudes, behaviours]). Question phraseology for close-ended questions is crucial. Surveys Advantages Disadvantages – Easy to administer to a large number of – Assumes people can be accurate people – Wording of the survey must be impeccable – Direct assessment of person’s state – Tendencies of research subjects to distort or lie about their responses. Social desirability response/fakin g good (trying to present oneself in a good light) – Interviews are more difficult & costly to administer. Correlational Research Correlation studies examine the extent to which two variables are naturally associated/related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them. Allows us to make general predictions about the future. Variable – anything that we can measure that van vary across individuals Correlational study examples: – height & shoe size – gender & happiness – self-esteem & depression – hours of sleep & alertness – smoking behaviour & appearance Reference: Research Methods(1).pdf, , , Jason Ho Introductory Psychology Page 3 PSY100H1 July 4, 13 Basic Factors about Correlations We measure correlations with a correlation coefficient: – A correlation coefficient can vary from r = –1 to r = +1, r = 0 means no relationship Positive correlation Negative correlation 2 factors vary in the same direction: 2 factors vary in opposite direction ↑ studying ↑ GPA ↑ exercise ↓ risk of heart disease ↓ studying ↓ GPA ↓ exercise ↑ risk of heart disease The sign tells you whether it’s a positive/negative correlation. The absolute value tells you the strength of the correlation (larger number = stronger relationship). Correlations (r) are depicted in a scatterplot (a grouping of points on a two-dimensional graph in which each dot represents a single person’s data). Cluster of dots, each of which represents values of 2 variables (Score on Measure 1 AND Measure 2). Correlation Versus Causation Correlational designs help us to determine whether two (or more) variables are related. BUT w e should not draw causal conclusions from them. They might be causally related, but we cannot tell that from just knowing a correlation. Directionality problem – unknown which variable causes changes in the other variable A causes B or B causes A Third variable problem – a possibility that an unknown, unmeasured variable is the actual cause in the differences in the variable C causes A and B Experimental Research Experiment – a study in which the researcher manipulates one variable to see that varia ble’s effect on a second (measured) variable Reference: Research Methods(1).pdf, , , Jason Ho Introductory Psychology Page 4 PSY100H1 July 4, 13 What makes a study an experiment? – Manipulation of an independent variable (experimental [treatment] vs. control [comparison] group) – Random assignment of participants into those groups Random assignment – randomly sorting participants into two (or more) groups (experimental vs.
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.