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PSY100H1 (1,606)


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University of Toronto St. George
Alison Luby

BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR The brain communicates using neurons - Nerve cells that send and receive signals - FALSE: We use 10% of our brains  we use 100% of our brains Division of the nervous system: Central Nervous System (CNS) - Involves the parts of the nervous system covered in bone (spinal cord and brain) - Enables mind and behavior Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - Nerves in the body that extend outside the CNS (all other nerves in the body) - All systems work together Forebrain – the part of the brain that allows advanced intellectual abilities - Includes the cerebral cortex – largest, outermost part of the forebrain responsible for analyzing sensory processing and higher brain functions - “Essence of human life” - Neocortex – most recently developed part of the brain - Cerebral hemispheres – two halves of the cerebral cortex - Corpus Callosum – bundle of nerve fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres - Thalamus – processes sensory information and serves information and serves as a gateway to the cerebral cortex (every sensation but smell passes through the thalamus) – part of the limbic system Occipital Lobe – specialized for vision – back of head Temporal Lobe – plays a role in hearing, understanding language, and memory – in your ear - Auditory cortex Parietal Lobe – Specialized for touch and perception (temp, pressure) - Somatosensory cortex – sensations of touch Frontal Lobe – responsible for motor function, language, and memory - Executive function – oversees other mental functions - Contains the motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex - Primary Motor Cortex – motion - Prefrontal cortex Broca’s Area – production of speech – by motor cortex - Helps control production – only focuses on speech Wenicke’s Area – understanding speech – by temporal lobe Broca’s aphasia - Broca’s Area damaged - Impaired speaking (can’t form words) o “nonfluent” aphasia - Would be able to understand speech but not produce it – generally good language comprehension Wrenicke’s aphasia - Wrenicke’s area damaged - Impaired understanding of language - Nonsensical, but fluent, speech o “fluent aphasia” Sensory Areas – regions of the cerebral cortex devoted to vision, touch, hearing, balance, taste, and smell Association areas – regions of the cerebral cortex that integrate simpler functions to perform more complex functions Midbrain – part of the brain stem that lies between the forebrain and the hindbrain - it helps to control head and neck reflexes and modulate motor activity, and coordinate sleep and arousal Reticular Activating System (RAS) – group of neurons in the brain stem that play a key role in arousal - Involved in attention, arousal, and altering activity in the rest o the brain Hindbrain – Lies between the spinal cord and the midbrain - Cerebellum – “little brain” – small cerebrum in hindbrain, responsible for our sense of balance, coordinating movements, etc. - Pons – connects the cerebral cortex with the cerebellum - Medulla – involves vital functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, coughing, swallowing… - These areas handle basic life support activates The Spinal Cord – - Sensory neuron – afferent o “approach” or “affected” - Motor neuron = efferent o “Exit” or “effecting” - Interneuron o Neurons in the spinal cord that send messages to other neurons nearby and stimulate neurons Stimulus  sensory neuron  interneuron  motor neuron  muscle movement - Mostly serves as messenger to and from the brain - Also involved in reflexes – automatic motor response to a sensory stimulus like a muscle stretch (brain not involved) Peripheral nervous system: Somatic Nervous System – part of the peripheral nervous system carrying messages from the CNS through the body to control movement - Sends and receives messaged between the skin, muscles… Limbic System: emotional center of the brian that also plays a role in smell, motivation, and memory - Networks with the autonomic nervous system (eg. fight or flight system_ to influence blood pressure, heart, respiration Hypothlamus – “under the thalamus” - Regulates a contant nternal state in terms of eating, drinking, body temperature - 4 F’s o Fighting o Fleeting o Feeding o Reproducing Amygdala – “almonds” - Play’s a key role in fear, excitement, etc. Hippocampus – “seahorse” - Plays a role in spatial memory – especially in forming new memories - Damage will cause us to stop forming new memories Autonomic Nervous System – part of the PNS controlling involuntary (automatic) actions of our internal organs and glands, which (along with the limbic system) participate in emotion Sympathetic division - Active during a crisis - “Fight or Flight” - Prepares your body for intense muscular activity Parasympathetic division - Controls rest and digest - “Rest and digest” Endocrine System – system of glands that controls secretion of blood-borne chemical messengers (hormones) Pituitary Gland – “master gland” controls hormone release of other bodily glands; under control of hypothalamus Gonads – sexual reproductive glands - Testes and ovaries produces hormones like: o Androgens (testosterone) o Estrogen (progesterone) HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE: Anatomy Cell body – manufactures new cell components (eg. proteins) Synapse (synaptic cleft) – space between two connecting neurons though which messages are transmitted Dendrites – portions of neurons that receive signals - Dendrite = Detect – can have spines which contact with the synapse Axons – portions of neurons that send signals – Axon = Away – have a trigger zone which is easy to activate – have an axon terminal (terminal buttons) Terminal buttons contain synaptic vesicles – spheres that contain neurotransmitters - Chemical messengers specialized for communication and are released at the synapse - The neurotransmitters travel across
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