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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Mark Schmuckler

Lecture 5  Necessary skills for visually-guided reaching o Perceptual skills  Object recognition  Depth perception  Figure-ground separation o Motor skills  Arm and hand coordination  Strength to move arms  Fine-motor coordination and control o Visual-motor integration and coordination  Visual guidance of the hand  Timing of the grasp o These skills are developed by the first year of life o Neonate  Tom Bower suggested that if you put infant and support infant in suitable conditions, after just a few days, infant will grasp objects  Von Hosten looked at nature of how infants move their arms when there was an object vs. when there was no object  Normative Sequence of Reaching o 1-2 months  Glance at objects when present  Begin to fixate objects for 5-10 sec  Arms not organized with vision  Grasping if an object is pressed against palm o 2-3 months  Isolation of components breaks down  Focus on objects  Beginning of prehensory behaviour  They get their arms out there and make a swipe at it (may make contact w/ object, but haven’t mastered timing of grasping yet)  Raise hand towards object o 3-4 months  Mutual grasping, 1 or 2 hands  Sometimes turn torso towards object o 4-5 months  Integrated looking and grasping  “top-level” reaching  Good grasping of object  Von Hosten’s experiment at touches and misses and grasps of a slow and fast object o Infants don’t really miss objects; they touch or grasp  More likely to grasp object at 18-21 weeks, around 5 months  Just as successful reaching stationary object as moving object, as soon as they can reach  Visually-guided o No such thing o No need for infants to see their hands o Just as likely to reach objects in dark as they are in light o Vision is important
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