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Mark Schmuckler

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November 18, 2009 Exam: Chapters 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 Dimensions of Parenting: Aspects of Control  Positive aspects of control o Parents put their child’s beliefs in front of their own o they are involved in what their child says, does, believes o parents are responsive to their children’s needs o parents should enforce rules of behaviour consistently  if a parent is not constantly present, they are unable to enforce rules consistently because they are not present to regulate o children whose parents are not involved with them are prone to delinquent behaviour, prone to alcohol abuse o parents who are not involved in their child’s lives are parents because they “have to be”, not because they “want to be”  Negative aspects of control  Diana Baumrind’s Classification of Parenting Patterns o Different dimensions lead to different parenting behaviours o Depends on whether parents are high or low in terms of warmth or control  With high control and high warmth  AUTHORITATIVE: Responsible children; self-confident and self- controlled  With high control, low warmth  AUTHORITARIAN: parents that are very demanding that place a high value on performing; little communication between parent and child; child is expected to perform or behave the way the parent wishes; they have no say  These children were rated by peers and teachers as very unhappy, withdrawn, anxious  With low control, high warmth  PERMISSIVE: parents are overly tolerant; child makes all decisions; parents had children that were seen as relatively immature; children lacked attention; these children throw tantrums when they are told “no” when they want to do something  With low control, low warmth  UNINVOLVED: little commitment by parents, other than taking care of basic needs of child; these parents are overwhelmed by other stuff so they keep distance from the child  This becomes neglect; by 2 years of age, these children show deficits of all aspects of cognition  The last 4-5 decades have seen dramatic changes in family structure o Changes in size, mobility, marriage, divorce  All these have impact in family processes  Changing family structure: large to small families th o There was a decline in births up until the middle of the century (19 ) o Then there was a baby booming o Then up to 1950-1959, there was another general decline in the birth rate  As a result, there is a dramatic decline in family size  As a consequence, smaller families are more favourable than larger consequence o Studies show that as more children are added to a family, parental behaviour changes  But not for the better  Parental discipline becomes more authoritarian  Parents’ times become less, so parents are less involved in children’s lives  Marital influences were also influenced by number of children  Parents have less time to devote to each other and to the marriage  Nature of marital influence has an impact in parenting as well  If parent’s marriage was not good, parenting wasn’t good either o Size of family is correlated to socioeconomic status  Generally, large families are less well off than smaller families  Because of the costs of raising children  It’s unclear whether this is because of family size or economic factors  Less money for daycare, less adequate housing o Growing up with siblings  The 2-child family is still the most common in North America  Nature of sibling interaction is very important  Common reason to have a second child is so that first child has a companion later on in life  Siblings are important for development of each other  Sibling rivalry  Attention from parents  Jealousy between siblings  But there is also a huge amount of positive interaction  After a second child is born, interaction between parent and first child drops dramatically o As a result, first child is jealous o But this jealousy is only for a short amount of time  After this stage of jealousy, there were positive interactions o First child is interested in cuddling and holding the 2 child  Older child will offer toys to younger child  Siblings offer important contact for development o Siblings are first companions o But first sources of conflicts too  Stealing toys, etc o Only children  Less common  Common idea: only child means that they’re spoiled  Parents with only one child receive pressure to have a second child  Only children are advanced are advanced in terms of sociability and education  They show better social relationships  These children receive more pressure for more mature behaviour  Pressured to not play around, have good behaviour  They only have one way to behave; they don’t know any other  When there are only adults in the house, child does not know how to rebel  They do what they are told because they don’t know anything else  Family mobility  When families move  Dislocations  Increase in family mobility may have potential negative consequences on child development o The reason why family moves has a great influence on development too  Reasons:  Positive reason o Ex. For a better job o Results in quick assimilation o Resources to have a house, car o Resources to maintain contact with old environment o Positive move  Negative reason o Ex. Death of a spouse, divorce, eviction o Results in fewer resources o Even short-distance moves seem very disruptive o Increase in delinquency results o Parental divorce  Divorce rates are at 50%  1 out of every 2 marriages will fail  Implications:  Children now spend time in a single-parent household  Amount of time spent at the house is 6 years o By then, parent will
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