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CHAPTER 8 Thinking and Intelligence Part II

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Wagner Denton

CHAPTER 8: Thinking & Intelligence Part II Thinking & Intelligence  How do we organize and represent knowledge?  How do we use knowledge to solve problems and make decisions?  How do we understand “intelligence”? Intelligence  Intelligence: The human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges  There are numerous approaches to studying intelligence  There are numerous components of intelligence Are IQ tests valid?  Yes Scores on IQ tests do help predict how successful someone will be at school or in a complex career o However, IQ is only one of many factors that predict success o Many other factors (motivation, work ethic, etc.) are just as important  Intelligence Quotient (IQ): A score on a normed test of intelligence (i.e., how your score compares to other people who have taken the test before you) o The average IQ is set at 100, with a standard deviation of 15 Types of Intelligence  General Intelligence (g): The idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities  Raymond Cattell (1971) divided intelligence into two types: o Fluid intelligence: Information processing in novel or complex circumstances (e.g., the ability to think quickly and flexibly  working memory) o Crystallized intelligence: Knowledge acquired through experience, and the ability to use this knowledge to solve problems (long-term memory) Types of Intelligence: Multiple Intelligences  Howard Gardner (1983) proposed a theory of multiple intellig
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