CHAPTER 8: Thinking & Intelligence Part II
Thinking & Intelligence
How do we organize and represent knowledge?
How do we use knowledge to solve problems and make decisions?
How do we understand “intelligence”?
Intelligence: The human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand
complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges
There are numerous approaches to studying intelligence
There are numerous components of intelligence
Are IQ tests valid?
Yes Scores on IQ tests do help predict how successful someone will be at school or
in a complex career
o However, IQ is only one of many factors that predict success
o Many other factors (motivation, work ethic, etc.) are just as important
Intelligence Quotient (IQ): A score on a normed test of intelligence (i.e., how your
score compares to other people who have taken the test before you)
o The average IQ is set at 100, with a standard deviation of 15
Types of Intelligence
General Intelligence (g): The idea that one general factor underlies all mental
Raymond Cattell (1971) divided intelligence into two types:
o Fluid intelligence: Information processing in novel or complex
circumstances (e.g., the ability to think quickly and flexibly working
o Crystallized intelligence: Knowledge acquired through experience, and the
ability to use this knowledge to solve problems (long-term memory)
Types of Intelligence: Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner (1983) proposed a theory of multiple intellig