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CHAPTER 9 Motivation and Emotion

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University of Toronto St. George
Wagner Denton

CHAPTER 9: Motivation & Emotion Motivation & Emotions  What are the factors that motivate behaviour? o What motivates you to eat? o What motivates you to study? o What motivates you to ask someone out on a date?  Why do we have emotions and how do they influence our behaviour? Needs & Drives  Drives (e.g., hunger) are psychological states that encourage behaviours (e.g., eating) that satisfy needs (e.g., food) o Encourage behaviour by increasing arousal  It is not only our internal drives that guide our behaviour  Incentives: External stimuli (as opposed to internal drives) that motivate behaviours o E.g., The food tastes good, so we eat it though we are not hungry Eating  What? o Determined by cultural beliefs, personal experience, and religion.  When? o When it’s mealtime o When you’re hungry o When there’s food  Why? o Feeding centre  “Eat, you’re hungry” o Satiety centre  “Stop, you’re full” o Hypothalmus  Damage to the ventromedial causes hyperphagia (getting fat)  Damage to the lateral region causes aphagia (getting too thin) o There are numerous theories regarding the internal signals responsible for hunger satiation  Leptin is a hormone released from fat which travels to the hypothalamus and inhibits eating behaviour  Grelin is a hormone from the stomach that surges before eating and decreases after eating  Glucostatic theory  glucose levels in the bloodstream  Lipostatic theory  set-point for body fat  How much? o More variety = more eating o Larger portions = more eating Needs & Drives  Drives  arousal, arousal  motivation, motivation  performance (?)  The Yerkes-Dosdon Law: Moderate levels of arousal are optimal for best performance. The harder the task is, the lower levels of arousal we want. The easier, the higher.  Extrinsic motivation: Motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which the activity is directed  Intrinsic motivation: Motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with the activity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose Rewarding Intrinsically Motivated Behaviours  Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973 o External reward can undermine intrinsic motivation  Children colouring test, those rewarded for colouring were no longer intrinsically motivated to colour, it became a job. Self-Regulation  Self-regulation is the process by which people alter or change their behaviour to attain personal goals o People differ in self-efficacy  Self-regulation is difficult! Often involves postponing short-term rewards in the pursuit of long-term goals  Self-regulation seems to be a “limited resource”  Some psychologists view self-regulation as similar to exercising muscle – over time, we become fatigued Self-regulation as a limited resource (Baumeister et al., 1998) Independent variable: Type of food eaten  No food  Control condition  Cookie eaters  No self-regulation  Turnip eaters  self-regulation Dependent variable: Time spent on unsolvable puzzle task  The turnip eaters had “used up” all of their self-regulatory resources, spend less effort on the puzzle than everyone else Self-Regulation: Delayed Gratification  The Marshmallow Test (Walter Mischel, 1960s)  Strategies: Turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions; ignoring; distraction o The ability to delay gratification as a child has been associated with numerous social and academic outcomes in adolescence and adulthood Sex  Kinsey surveys changed the way we think about sex  With who? o Hormones seem to be the best explanation of homosexuality Sexual Strategies Theory  An evolutionary theory that proposes that men and women rank the importance of qualities in their relationship partners differently because of gender-specific adaptive problems o Reproduction is a more intensive commitment for women, so they are more cautious about having sex o Importance of attractiveness versus status Sex & Love  “Your love, your love, your love, is my drug”  “Might as well face it, your addicted to love”  “Love is the drug I need to score; love is the drug for me”  Turns out that your brain in love does indeed look a lot like your brain on cocaine. And this is different from your brain in lust o Evidence that there are different brain systems for sex and love (though they do, not surprisingly, become linked) Love: Motivation or Emotion?  According to psychologist Art Aron, romantic love is not an emotion, but a motivation system designed to enable people to build and maintain an intimate relationship with a referred mating partner o Romantic love as a goal-oriented state  the person we are in love with is the goal o Also associated with dopamine and reward systems: Ventral tegmental area (VTA) Emotion  Emotions are immediate responses to environmental events o Not the same as moods  Emotions are: o Adaptive o Communicative
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