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Lecture 3


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Dan Dolderman

*re-listen -reconsolidation:what happens after memories are recalled ex.memory=adding receptors,forgetting=losing receptors generalization=memories fade,details forgotten (this can be proven through the experiments with rats) Third variable experiments:alternative explanation that proposes another correlation (common cause) -even if two things are correlated,the third variable experiments introduce a third variable which may also contribute to the outcome -ex.A and B are correlated,but perhaps C is also correlated to B -A and B have a spurious correlation -a correlation can be drawn between smoking and cancer (this diagram shows that they have a spurious correlation as they are both directly correlated to a third variable,genes) -more testing needs to be done to uncover alternative (third) variables,more expensive to test,but produces a more reliable result Confounds -another variable that will manipulate the outcome unintentionally ->in experiments,hold everything else constant,and manipulate one variable -however,there is a possibility that other variables (confounding factors) are also manipulated despite attempts to prevent this -these hidden variables could also be causing effects of the dependent variables that's being tested ex.psychotherapy-> helps with depression but the process of talking to a validating,empathetic person may be the hidden variable causing the result,not necessarily going to psychotherapy specifically -therefore in order to produce more accurate results,confounds have to be ruled out by setting extra control conditions -in order to make this experiment more accurate,you would have to make the control group go to sessions in which they also talk to validating,empathetic people that are not psychotherapists,while the study group does go to psychotherapists -alternatively,confounds can be measured and must be shown statistically that how they vary dont account for effects on the dependent variable *placebo workshops Control Groups -these control groups are the key to limiting the third variables/confounds that could possibly alter the outcome -however,it is difficult to find the right control group that will eliminate the right alternative variables Science:Just the facts? -science isnt entirely about facts;also about hypotheses,observations,conclusions -a single research study is not meaningful,more studies need to be done -how do you determine if something is true? -> replication:more studies are done with the same result,then the more true the result becomes -> convergence:if the same results are produced (converge) from different labs using different biases,different methods,different subjects,then the result is more likely to be true -> multiple methods:similar to above -> peer review process:process of refinement of studies and papers,if a paper makes it through the process,and reviewers converge,then it is deemed to be reliable and you have increased confidence (this peer review process is the arbitrator of truth) Peer Review -science is an evidence-based,expert-adjudicated democracy -therefore,any sources that have not gone through this process arent reliable ex.papers relating to climate change that have not gone through the peer review process are varied,while those that have gone through this process are a lot less varied) Measurement -scientific thinking occurs across two levels: 1.conceptual (theoretical level,what you believe is happening in reality) 2.operational (experimental level,what instrument or manipulation you use to reflect reality) *look at diagram in notes -science is about constructing validity Operationalization -process of taking theory and figuring out how to represent it through measurements -> taking it from the conceptual level to the operational level -operationalize (in)dependent variable Why are measurement scales so repetitive? -this is done to ensure accuracy,ensures that responses correlate with each other and that they're measuring the same thing ex.some questions may be worded poorly,some test subjects may be answering dishonestly Validating a Measure -reliability (alpha):scale items that correlate with each other confirm that a coherent construct is being measured -validity:determined by seeing how well the construct can relate (
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