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Abnormal Psychology Notes.docx

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Abnormal PsychologyChapter 1Introduction Psychopathology the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behaviour thoughts and feelingsWhat is Abnormal BehaivourDetermined by presence of several characteristics at one time 1 Statistical Infrequencyo One that does not deviate from the averageo Normal distribution curve o Ex having a low IQ as discovered from the normal or bell curve can diagnose mental retardation o However stat infrequency by itself cannot diagnose a disorder o What happens when someone has a high IQ Are they abnormal Or one with high athletic abilities We do not say these people are abnormal o Case study exJBrett Barkleys alternating episodes of depression and mania2 Violation of Norms o The behaviour violates social norms or threatens o Case study exBarkleys verbal and physical attacks on wife o Cultural diversity can affect how people view social normswhat is the norm in one culture may be abnormal in another3 Personal Distress o The behaviour causes great distress and torment in the person experiencing it o Case study exBarkleys selfconsciousness and distress about being evaluated o However again this does not fit all criteriathose with depression experience this but psychopaths do not4 Disability or Dysfunction o The behaviour impairs an important area of life ie work or personal relationships o Case study exBarkleys disrupted marital relationshipo Applies to some not all5 Unexpectedness o Distress that is an unexpected response to environmental stressoro Ie one who is well off but constantly worries about their financial situationMental Health ProfessionsClinical psychologist o Phd o Focus on assessment and diagnosis and learn how to practice psychotherapy helping to change individuals thoughts feelings and behaviours to reduce distress and achieve greater life satisfactionPsychiatrist o MD degree o Prescribe psychoactive drugsPsychoanalyst o Receive specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute o No one becomes this anymoreSocial worker o Master of social work degree o Counseling psychologists o Dont learn as intense stuff as the others Psychological services are underused and are more available in urban rather than rural settingsHistory of PsychopathologyPeople first thought the deviancy of behaviour reflected the displeasure of gods or possession by demonsEarly DemonologyDemonology the doctrine that an evil being such as the devil may dwell witin a person and control his or her mind and bodyTreatment often involved exorcism the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or tortureTrepanning was also usedwhere they made a surgical opening in a living skull by some instrument to let the bad spirits outSomatogenesisSomatogensis the notion that something wrong with the soma or physical body disturbs thought and actionPsychogenesis in contrast is the belief that a disturbance has psychological originsDiscovered by Hippocrates the father of modern medicineHe separated medicine from religion magic and superstitionHe classified mental disorders into 3 categories mania melancholia and phrenitis brain feverTreatments he described were different for mania certain foods and drinks abstinence from sexBelieved abnormal behaviour produced by some kind of physical imbalance or even damageThe Dark Ages and DemonologyThe church came into playmonks would nurse the sick by praying for them making special potions for them to drinkThose who were accused of witchcraft were tortured if they did not confessThen it was thought that those who were mentally ill WERE witches th Lunacy trials were developed to determine a persons sanity in the 13 centuryDevelopment of AsylymsLeprosariums were converted to asylums as leprocy started fading away thth 15 and 16 centuryAsylum refuges established for the confinement and care of mentally illBethleham had some of the earliest asylums Bedlam was an early name for hospitala place of wild uproar and confusionIt became a tourist attraction Medical treatments were crude and painful o Some dumbass thought mental disorders were caused by an excess of blood to the brain so his treatment was taking out great quantities of blood and also thought he could treat them by scaring themdumbassPhillippe Pinel was the smart guy who said they should be treated as human beings with dignity and respect treated with compassion and understandingIn response hospitals became more controlled sick ppl were walking around more calm and easier to handle BUT hes still an a hole bc he only treated upper class like thislower class was put to torturous treatmentFinally in the states at some point they approached this with moral treatment patients had close contact with the attendants who talked and read to them and encouraged them to engage in purposeful activityresidents led as normal lives as possible and in general took responsibility for themselves within the contraints of their disordersLa di dathen they started using medsAsylums in CanadaThis section is really boring and nothing sounds that importantI just remember from class saying how the names of the buildings were really niceThe Center for Addiction and Mental Health CAMH downtown was Torontos asylum The Beginning of Contemporary ThoughtStarted looking at the body and anatomy of itbut realized we are different from apes that was studied at the timeKraepelin discerned among mental disorders a tendency for a certain group of symptoms called a syndrome to appear together regularly and attributed to a biological dysfunction o Proposed 2 major groups of severe mental diseases demntia praecox schizo and manicdepressive psychosis bipolar
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