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Chapters 7-15 These notes include key terms and a summary of the key concepts from the textbook and from the lectures

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 7: MEMORY Basic Stages Of Memory - Memory is the capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing living organisms to benefit from experience - Modal memory model is the three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory - Sensory memory is when information such as lights and smells leaves a trace on the nervous system for a split second and then vanishes and is often referred to as iconic memory and echoic memory - The George Sperling experiment tested flashing rows of letters for brief moments and asking to recall but individuals were only able to recall within 1/3 second - Short term memory (immediate memory) holds information in awareness for a brief period of time but up to 20 second limit - Working Memory is an active processing system that deals with multiple types of information such as sounds, images and ideas - The working memory system consists of three components: central executive, the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad - Central executive are interactions between subsystems and sensory systems that encodes the information and filters it to be stored in long-term memory - Phonological loop (inner voice) encodes auditory information and words are processed by sound, not by meaning - Visuospatial sketchpad processes visual information such as objects features and where they are located Long-Term Memory - Distinguishing long term from short term uses serial position effect (the ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle) - The primacy effect refers to people who remember items that were presented first because they repeated them more and they went into long-term memory - The recency effect refers to people where their last items are still fresh in the short-term memory, however recency effect lasts longer and does not necessarily distinguish between short-term memory and long-term memory. - Distributed practice is much better than massed practice (cramming) and over- learning is recommended - Only meaningful information that can help us adapt can go into long-term memory - Long-term memory is not a unitary system because different systems encode and store different types of information in different ways (Ex. ability to ride a bicycle and recite a story) Different Memory Systems - Explicit memory (process of memory) requires attention, remembering specific information - Declarative memory (content memory) is the cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory knowledge that can be declared - Episodic memory refers to ones personal past experiences - Semantic memory refers to ones knowledge of trivial or important facts independent of personal experience - Implicit memory is the process by which people show without any deliberate effort that they are remembering something (Ex. brushing your teeth) - Procedural memory is a type of motor memory which involves behavioral habits - Procedural memory is also involved in repetition priming improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has previously been experienced lasting for many hours Long-Term Memory Is A Temporal Sequence - Memory can be divided into three processes: 1. Encoding: identifying mental representations 2. Storage: changes in nervous system 3. Retrieval: implicit or explicit - Maintenance rehearsal involves simply repeating the item over and over again - Elaborative rehearsal involves encoding the information in more meaningful ways such as thinking about the item conceptually - Schemas are hypothetical cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process and use information - Schemas are dangerous because of biases and the help sort out incoming information and guide our attention to relevant features of the environment - Information is based on networks of associations and are formed of nodes which are connected to other nodes - A retrieval cue is anything that helps people access information from long-term memory and help sort through the vast amount of data stored in the long-term memory to identify the right information - Encoding specificity principle is any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience which can later trigger the memory of the experience (Ex. students do better when they write exams in the same room as they studied the material) - State-dependent memory internal cues such as mood states or inebriation can be retrieval cues (Ex. drunks remembering where they left their keys) Brain Processes Involved In Memory - All areas of brain are equally involved in memory - Temporal lobes are important for ability to encode new memories and important for declarative memory, but less important for implicit memory - The cerebellum is involved in procedural memory - Basal ganglia is also involved in procedural memory and important for classical conditioning - Amygdala is involved in forming emotional memories - Temporal lobes consist of: amygdala, hippocampus, and rhinal cortex (located around the front of the hippocampus) and damage to this region causes anterograde amnesia (inability to form new memories or consolidate) - Consolidation results from changing the strength of neural connections that support memory - Hippocampus and surrounding rhinal cortex seem to be essential for declarative memory (Ex. monkey reward under card experiment) - Memory for sensory experiences involves reactivating the cortical circuits involved in perceiving them and the medial temporal lobes form links or pointers between the different sites of storage and direct the gradual strengthening of the connections between these links - Reconsolidation is a proposition that once memories have been activated they need to be consolidated again meaning that memories can be altered during this later activation - Spatial memory is memory for the physical environment and includes such things as direction, location of objects, and cognitive maps - Frontal Lobes are important in episodic memory, working memory, spatial memory, time sequences and various aspects of encoding and retrieval - The frontal lobes are strongly connected to other memory regions, including the medial temporal areas and they work together with other brain regions to coordinate encoding, storage and retrieval - Damage to frontal lobes, does not include profound memory loss but includes difficulty with time sequence and where the information was learned (Ex. in the very young and old with frontal lobe deficits) - Brain activity in regions that are involved in processing specific types of information is associated with better memory for that type of information - Memory modulators are neurotransmitters that can modify storage of memory - Only meaningful events are stored, and emotional (emotion gives meaning) changes to neurochemical changes - Injecting epinephrine boosts memory and possibly having an effect on norepinephrine or glucose release - Modulation of memory occurs due to alterations in the activity of norepinephrine receptors in amygdala has strong and long-lasting effect on formation of memories - Posttraumatic stress disorder is a serious mental disorder which can occur from a highly emotional negative event which may include nightmares and flashbacks People Who Forget - Forgetting is the inability to retrieve memory from long-term storage and is an everyday experience - There are seven sins of memory: 1. Transience (forgetting) reduced memory over time, such as a plot to a movie 2. Absentmindedness (forgetting) reduced memory due to failing to pay attention, such as losing keys 3. Blocking (forgetting) inability to remember needed information, such as failing to recall the name of a person you meet on the street 4. Misattribution (distortion) assigning a memory to the wrong source, such as thinking that an everyday person is famous 5. Suggestibility (distortion) altering a memory because of misleading information, such as developing false memories for events that did not happen 6. Bias (distortion) influence of current knowledge on our memory for past events, such as remembering our past attitudes as similar to our current attitudes even though they have changed 7. Persistence (undesired) the resurgence of unwanted or disturbing memories that we would like to forget, such as remembering an embarrassing moment - Proactive interference is when prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information (Ex. new locker combination every year) - Retroactive interference is when new information inhibits the ability to remember old information (Ex. forgetting old locker combination) - Blocking is the temporary inability to remember something that is known (Ex. name of favorite CD or someones name) - The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is when people experience great frustration as they try to recall specific works that are somewhat
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