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Chapter 9 - 16 These notes include key terms and a summary of the key concepts from the textbook and from the lectures

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Dan Dolderman

CHAPTER 9: MOTIVATION How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behavior - Motivation is the area of psychological science that studies the factors that energize, or stimulate behavior - Specifically, it is concerned with how behavior is initiated, directed, and sustained - Motivational states are energizing in that they activate or arouse behaviors – they cause animals to do something - Motivational states are directive in that they guide behaviors toward satisfying specific goals or needs - Motivational states help people to persist in their behavior until goals are achieved or needs are satisfied - A need is a state of biological or social deficiency, such as a lock or air or food - A need hierarchy, is Maslow’s arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs are lowest and personal growth needs are highest in terms of ultimate priority - A state of self-actualization occurs when someone achieves his or her personal dreams and aspirations - Drives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs - Arousal is a generic term used to describe physiological activation (such as increased brain activity) or increased autonomic responses (such as quickened heart rate, increased sweating, or muscle tension) - Homeostatis is a term used to describe the tendency for body functions to maintain equilibrium - Over time, if a behavior consistently reduces a drive, it becomes a habit – the likelihood that a behavior will occur is due to both drive and habit - Incentives are external objects, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviors – getting an A on your midterm is the incentive for studying hard - If drives create arousal and motivate behavior, you might expect that the more aroused you are, the more motivated you will be and therefore the better you will perform - However, a principle known as Yerkes-Dodson law, dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point, after which it decreases with increasing arousal, thus creating a shape like an inverted U – thus you perform best on exams when you have a moderate level of anxiety - Arousal theories help to explain why people choose different activities – we choose the because they arouse us and absorb our attention - Arousal then not only motivates us to satisfy basic needs, but an optimal amount of arousal is also desirable on its own - From an evolutionary perspective, behaviors associated with pleasure are often those that promote the animal’s survival and reproduction such as how animals prefer to eat sweets - Sexual behavior for example, leads to increased dopamine activity and drugs that block dopamine interfere with the rewarding properties of food and water such as cocaine, which are usually seen as rewarding - This, dopamine activation may help guide adaptive behaviors by rewarding those that promote survival or reproduction - Extrinsic motivation emphasizes the external goals toward which an activity is directed, such as drive reduction or reward (working to earn a paycheck) - Intrinsic motivation refers to the value or pleasure that is associated with an activity but that has no apparent biological goal or purpose, such as listening to music - Curiosity is a mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behavior, highly seen in children where they like to seek out new situations and games - Creativity is the capacity to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, or entertaining ourselves and others - Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation and decrease the likelihood that people will perform the rewarded behavior - As well, extrinsic rewards undermine only behavior that is intrinsically rewarding, thus the challenge to educators is to find ways to increase the intrinsic value of schoolwork – failing this, extrinsic rewards can be used to make an otherwise boring task seem worth pursing Why Are Human Beings Social? - The need to belong theory states that the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes - This theory explains the ease and frequency with which many people form social bonds and is supported by evidence that people feel anxious when excluded from their social groups - It has been tested, that anxious people prefer to be around anxious people because people are motivated to have accurate information about themselves and others – people compare themselves to others around them in order to test and validate personal beliefs and emotional responses - A social dilemma is when there is a motivational conflict both to cooperate and to be selfish – typically selfishness maximizes short- term interests, whereas cooperation maximizes long-term interests - People who violate norms of trust, reciprocity, honesty, and morality are stigmatized and socially excluded by group members - The stigmatization attached to behaviors such as cheating, stealing, or betrayal refers to in-group behaviors – stealing from or cheating out- groups can lead to great advantages for the group doing the stealing and cheating How Do People Achieve Personal Goals? - Self-regulation of behavior is the process by which people initiate, adjust or stop actions in order to attain personal goals - A goal is a desired outcome and is usually associated with some specific object (such as tasty food) or some future behavioral intention (such as getting into medical school) - Many individuals long-term goals motivate their hard work - Challenging goals arouse the greatest effort, persistence, and concentration, whereas goals that are too easy or too hard can undermine motivation and often lead to poor outcomes - Self-efficacy is the expectancy that your efforts will lead to success – this belief helps to mobilize your energies - Goals that are challenging but not overwhelming usually are most conducive to success - People differ in the extent to which they pursuer challenging goals - The achievement motive is the desire to do well relative to standards of excellence - People possess mental representatives of their goal states and compare how they are doing to these goals - The cognitive mechanism that directs behavior is based on negative feedback - The TOTE model assesses self-regulation in which people evaluate progress in achieving goals such as a C student becoming a B student - When self-awareness is high, people act in accordance with personal standards; when self-awareness is low, their inhibitions disappear and they lose touch with those standards, a mental states known as deindividuation - When people perform about some standard, they experience positive affect and therefore stop evaluation themselves - When people perform below their ideal standards, they experience negative affect, such as feelings of sadness, frustration and anxiety - One way to reduce negative effect is to avoid self-awareness through escapism such as drinking alcohol, reading a book or watching a movie - The process of transcending immediate temptations in order to achieve long-term goals is known as delay of gratification - The ability to delay gratification in
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