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Chapter 9 Summary Psychological Science This is a condensed summary of Chapter 9 in the text Psychological Science including important terms, concepts, theories, and details that may be on the midterm/ final exam.

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 9  Motivation: factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour  Need: state of biological/social deficiencies w/in the body  Need hierarchy: Maslow’s arrangement of needs in which basic survival needs are lowest and personal growth needs are highest in terms of ultimate priority o Humanistic psych, where ppl strive towards personal fulfillment  Self actualization: when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been attained  Drives: psychological states activated to satisfy needs  Arousal: generic term used to describe physiological activation or increased autonomic responses  Homeostasis: tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium  Over time, if a behaviour consistently reduces a drive, it becomes a habit  Incentives: external stimuli that motivate behaviour  Yerkes-Dodson law: dictates that behavioural efficiency increases w/ arousal up to an optimum point, after which it decreases w/ increasing arousal  Motivational states arouse behaviours that solve adaptive problems-> creates pleasure o Seek pleasure avoid pain (ex. Sweet and bitter tastes)  Extrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity b/c of external goals toward which that activity is directed.  Intrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity b/c of the value/pleasure associated w/ it rather than a goal/purpose. o Curiosity and play: intrinsic-> helps to learn about environment o Creativity-> intrinsic (tendency to generate ideas/alternative that may be useful in problem solving) o Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation  This is b/c it doesn’t satisfy our autonomy  Self-perception theory: w/ reward, the activity is not done out of fun, but done for the reward  Anxiety arises when ppl are socially isolated  Need to belong theory: the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes o Social exclusion theory: anxiety warns ppl they may be rejected  Anxious people prefer to be around other anxious people-> guides whether they are acting properly-> social comparison theory  Social dilemma: when there is a motivational conflict both to cooperate and to be selfish o Most groups detect those who cheat to ensure survival of group  Self-regulation: process by which ppl initiate, adjust, or stop actions in order to attain personal goals  Goal: desired outcome associated w/ some specific object or some future behavioural intention  Self efficacy: expectancy that one’s efforts will lead to success  Achievement motive: desire to do well relative to standards of excellence  TOTE model: model of self-regulation in which ppl ev
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