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Chapter 8 Summary Psychological Science This is a condensed summary of Chapter 8 in the text Psychological Science including important terms, concepts, theories, and details that may be on the midterm/ final exam.

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence Cognition: mental activity such as thinking or representing information Analogical representations: mental representation that has some of the physical characteristics of an object it is analogous to the object Symbolic representations: abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object/idea.  Concept: mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or relations around common themes  Defining attribute model: idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category  Prototype models: approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that w/in each category, some members are more representative than others o Exemplar models: no single best rep of categories Essential elements of schemas:  Common situations have consistent attributes such as a library’s being quiet and having books  Ppl have specific roles w/in situational context Deductive reasoning:  Form of reasoning in which logic is used to draw a specific conclusion from given premises o Conditional syllogism: argument-> if A is true then B is true  Categorical syllogism: 2 premises and a conclustion Inductive reasoning:  Form of reasoning in which we develop general rules after observing specific instances Decision making:  Expected utility theory: decisions boil down to alternatives, and best alternative is chosen  Heuristics: mental shortcuts ppl use during inducting reasoning and decision making  Availability heuristic: making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind  Representative heuristic: rule for categorization based on how similar the person/object is to our prototypes for that category o Base rate: frequency of event occurring  Confirmation bias: tendency to search for and believe evidence that fits our existing views  Framing: effect of presentation on how information is perceived o Loss aversion  Affective heuristics: people avoid negative feelings, and make decisions that would make them feel good later Problem solv
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