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Chapter 10 Summary Psychological Science This is a condensed summary of Chapter 10 in the text Psychological Science including important terms, concepts, theories, and details that may be on the midterm/ final exam.

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 10: Emotions and Health  Emotion (affect): feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs  Moods: diffuse and long-lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupts thought and behaviour  Stress: pattern of behavioural and physiological responses to events that match/exceed an organism’s abilities  Health psychology: field of psychological science concerned w/ the events that affect physical well-being Emotions are adaptive:  They help prepare and guide behaviours for survival  Facial expressions communicate emotion o Some are universal o The eyes are more accurate, but the mouth is more commonly used  Display rules: cultural rules that govern how and when emotions are exhibited o Diff b/w genders Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions:  Guides decision making, memory and behaviour  Moods= heuristic thinking  +moods= more dopamine= advantageous cognitive effects  Affect-as-information: people use their current emotional state to make judgements and appraisals  Somatic markers: bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an action’s consequences  Emotional information captures attention o Ex. Emotional Stroop task o attentional blink  emotions aid memory Interpersonal Relations:  anxiety serves as an alarm function that motivates people to behave according to group norms  guilt: negative emotional state associated w/ anxiety, tension, and agitation o strengthens relationships b/c it prevents harmful behaviour, demonstrates care, and can be manipulated o influenced by social environment  embarrassment represents submission to and affiliation w/ the social group and a recognition of the unintentional social error  jealousy= +/- Emotion- Subjective Experience:  alexithymia: disorder where ppl do not experience the subjective component of emotions o (ex. Elliot)  Primary emotions: evolutionarily adaptive, shared across cultures, and associated w/ specific biological and physical states  Secondary emotions: blends of primary emotions (ex. Remorse, guilt, anticipation etc.)  Circumplex model: emotions are arranged in a circle around the intersections of 2 core dimensions of affect o +/- activation; independent of each other Emotion: Physiological component:  James Lange theory of emotion: suggests that experience of emotion is elicited by a physiological response to a particular stimulus/situation  Facial feedback hypothesis: idea that facial expressions trigger the experience of emotion  Cannon-Bard theory of emotion: emotion-producing stimuli from the environment elicit both an emotional and physical reaction Cognitive Component:  Two-factor theory of emotion: situation evokes both a physiological response, and a cognitive interpretation o Ex. Experiment w/ happy and angry confederate  Misattribution of arousal: when emotion label is derived from wrong source  Excitation transfer: form of misattribution in which residual physiological arousal caused by one event is transferred to a new stimulus Mood regulation:  Humour o Increases + affect o Beneficial to health  Suppression and rumination o Rumination: thinking about, elaborating, and focusing on undesired thoughts/ feelings, which prolongs the mood. o Both are bad. Distraction is better. Neurophysologic
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