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Lecture

Chapter 11-16 Summary (Psychological Science) Summary of chapters 11-16 of Psychological Science textbook that includes important terms, concepts, theories, and details that may be useful when studying for the second midterm and final exam for the course.

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 11 Developmental psychology: study of changes in physiology, cognition, and social behaviour over the life span Human development follow predictable progression (varies w/ environment) In the womb: o 2 months=embryo Internal organs, sex organs, and nervous system o After 2 months= fetus Physical growth and form Physical development: o Genes-> human nervous system o Hormones can affect IQ, and autism Teratogens: environmental agents that harm the embryo/ fetus Early brain growth: o Specific areas w/in brain mature and become functional o Regions of brain learn to communicate w/ each other through synaptic connections o Myelinated areas= developed. (ex. Abstract thinking is not myelinated till 20+) o Synaptic pruning: use it or lose it Critical period: development stage during which young animals are able to acquire skills & knowledge. If they are not acquired here, they can never be acquired. o sensitive periods are when its easier to acquire new skills Attachment: strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances o Heightened feelings of safety o Adaptive; shown by animals as well o Clinging to mother is not just for food Attachment style: (strange situation test) o Secure attachment: majority of children, plays and interacts happily only w/ caregiver o Avoidant attachment: 20-25% of children, not distressed by departure of caregiver o Anxious-ambivalent attachment: anxious throughout entire test o (some have disorganized attachment) o Behavioural problems=insecurely attached o Oxytocin is important for attachment Preferential looking technique: children look longer at new/interesting things Orienting reflex: tendency for humans to pay attention to novel stimuli Vision: o Distinguishing shapes, patterns and colours develop early in infancy o Prefers bolder things Auditory: o Can perceive where sound is coming from, and memory of sounds Piaget: stage of development; children think differently than adults o Schemas: conceptual models of how the world works that children form @ each stage o Assimilation process through which a new experience is placed into existing schema o Accommodation: process through which a schema is adapted/expanded to incorporate new exp. o Sensorimotor stage (0-2yrs) Infants acquire info about the world through their senses and respond reflexively Object permanence: understanding that and object continues to exist even when it is hidden from view o Preoperational stage(2-7) children think symbolically about objects, but reason is based on appearance rather than logic o concrete operational stage (7-12) children begin to think about and understand operations in ways that are reversible o formal operation stage( 12- adulthood) ability to think abstractly and to formulate and test hypotheses through deductive logic o (see chart on page 450) Innate knowledge: o Primitive understanding of physics o Can understand more/less than (math) Memory: o Have some sort of memory (ex. Kicking mobile experiment) o Infantile amnesia: inability to remember events from childhood o Source amnesia: when young children cant remember where they learned something Theory of mind: ability to explain/predict other ppls behaviour as a result of recognizing their mental state st o Children begin to read intentions in 1 yr, shows Piaget underestimated o Cannot think from diff perspectives till 4+ Language: o Children can tell difference in language o Adults know 60k words o First words around yr 1 Performatives and true words o 18 months: words are put together, rapid vocab growth Telegraphic speech: rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markings but follow a logical syntax system o universal grammar o Social context influences language, which influence cognitive development o Sensitive period for language: prior to puberty o Language acquisition is the same for sign language Social development: maturation of skills or abilities that enable ppl to live in a world w/ other ppl Gender roles o Gender: culturally constructed differences b/w males and females o Gender identity: personal beliefs about whether one is male/female o Gender roles: characteristics associated w/ men and women b/c of cultural influence/learning o Gender schemas: cognitive structures that influence how people perceive the behaviours of females and males. Adolescents question themselves b/c: o Changing physical appearance o Sophisticated cognitive abilities o Pressure for the future Peers> parents in influence, but they are complementary Morality: o Moral emotions: empathy, sympathy, guilt, shame o Parents play large role in teaching morals o Morality-> prefrontal cortex Adulthood: o Eriksons stages of identity (pg.471) o Life transitions: career, marriage, children Cognitive changes during aging: o Memory Cant multi task b/c of shrinking frontal lobes Better + than memory Recognition> retrieval o Intelligence: Fluid decreases, but crystallized increase Chapter 12: Personality Personality: characteristics, emotional responses, thoughts, and behaviours that are relatively stable over time and across circumstances o Coherent whole, and is dynamic Personality trait: a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across certain circumstances Psychodynamic theory: Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes & motives, influence behaviour.-> instincts o Topographical model of mind: Conscious->aware Preconscious-> unaware but retrievable Subconscious-> difficult to retrieve psychosexual stages: developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages) id: the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle superego: internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct ego: component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego defence mechanism: unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress Humanistic approaches: emphasize personal experience and belief systems and propose that ppl seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential o Unconditional positive regard vs. conditional love Personality types: discrete categories into which we place people Trait approach: focuses on extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions o 16 basic dimensions of personality Eysencks hierarchical model: o Superordinate level, trait level, habitual response level, specific response level Big Five: Five-factor theory idea that personality can be described using 5 traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (OCEAN) Dark Triad: Machiavellianism-> tendency to behave in cold and manipulative manner Narcissism Psychopathy Personality and cognitive processes: Locus of control-> internal vs. external Cognitive social theories: emphasizes how personal beliefs, expectancies, and interpretations of social situations shape behaviour and personality Personality represents behaviour that emerges from how ppl interpret their social worlds and from the beliefs that they have about how they will affect and be affected by their social institutions Assessing personality: Idiographic approaches: person-centred approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons
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