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psy100 09-26-2013 - Biological foundations.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

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09-26-2013 September 26, 2013 11:14 AM Neurons  Bipolar, unipolar, interneuron, dendrites, terminal buttons, synapse, axon, myelin sheath (glial cells), nodes of Ranvier, cell body, action potential, re-uptake  Communication between neurons are received through transfer of chemical signals (affecting cell polarity) from CNS/PNS throughout body and back o excitatory signals - signals coming into neuron to increase possibility of firing by depolarizing the cell; within cell usually negative depolarization reduces negativity o Inhibitory signals - hyperpolarize neurons to decrease likely hood of neuron firing  All or none principal - neurons either fire or don’t fire; do not partially fire  Action potential  Within axon membrane K+ and Na+ are limited to movement in/out cell through respective channels; sodium is exchanged 3:2, K+ channel is free; creating polarization and depolarization  Reuptake - reabsorption of left over neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter  carry signals between neurons; stored in vesicles (microtubules) and fuse to presynaptic membranes; release contents into synapse and are then received by post synaptic neurons  Neurotransmitters - acetylcholine -responsible for motor control between muscles and nerves , epinephrine -adrenaline, norepinephrine - arousal/alertness, serotonin - emotional states, happiness and depression,, dopamine - reward/motivation/ pleasurable feelings, GABA - major inhibitor glutamate - major excitatory Drugs  Agonist - enhance neurotransmitter actions by: increase release of neurotransmitter, blocking reuptake of neurotransmitter, neurotransmitter and activating postsynaptic receptor; cocaine, meth  Antagonist - inhibits neurotransmitters by: block release of neurotransmitter, destroy available neurotransmitter in synapse, or mimicking to block neurotransmitter binding; beta blockers, Botox Brains Larger brain does not indicate higher intelligence, humans do not have larger brain, and brain size is relative to body size and complexity; o Humans have larger cerebral cortex other mammals William James - average human only achieves 10% of potential - false  Brainstem - survival, reticular formation - network of neurons from brainstem up to cortex controls alertness and sleep  cerebellum - coordinated movement and balance, greatly affected by alcohol;  subcortical structures - emotion and basic drives  Hypothalamus - small structure, brains master regulatory structure responsible for communication to endocrine syste
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