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Chapter 6.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Steve Joordens

Chapter 661 Psychologists conduct experiments to find out why people who drink artificially sweetened beverages actually gain weight two dont link and results suggest that neural and digestive systems of diet soda drinkers may have learned an unhealthy lesson Learning process where behavior or knowledge changes as a result of experienceo Learning from experience plays a major role in enabling us to do many things that we werent born to doo Cognitive learning when students learn they get new informationo Associative learning associate certain holidays with specific sightsPavlovs dogs classical conditioning of salvationPavlov studied digestion used dogs as a model species for his experiments Collective saliva and other gastric secretions from dogs when they were presented with meat powderNoticed dogs would start salivating Perhaps digestive responses were more than reflexes in response to food If dogs salivate in anticipation of food then perhaps salivary response can also be learned Pavlov began conducting experiments where he presented a sound from a metronome then presented meat powder to dogs After pairing sound with good he discovered metronome could elicit salivation Classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally caused by another stimuluso One event causes anothero Stimulus external event or cue that elicits a responseo Stimuli like food water pain sexual contact elicit different types of responseso Unconditioned stimulus stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without learningo The unconditioned part of the unconditioned stimulus refers to the fact that it can elicit a response in the absence of any learningo Unconditioned response a reflexive unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimuluso In Pavlovs experiment meat powder elicited unconditioned salivation in his dogso As well as food eliciting salivation other unconditioned stimulus and response relationships include flinching in response to a loud soundo Conditioned stimulus a once neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
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