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Lecture

Psych Ch 5.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Psych Ch. 5 5.1 - REM= sleep problem, dangerous, people act out in their dreams, other people hit or choke their partner during sleep - Consciousness= a persons subjective awareness including thoughts, perceptions, experiences of the world and self awareness o Every day we go through many changes in consciousness, our thoughts and perceptions are constantly adapting to new situations o Sometimes when we are concentrating we seem to control are conscious experience more o In other situations when we are daydreaming, consciousness wanders What is sleep? - Circadian rhythms o Life involves patterns that cycle within days, weeks, months or years o Organisms have evolved biological rhythms which are adapted to the cycles in the environment  Circannual rhythm= yearly cycle, like bears who sleep or hibernate in the winter  Circadian rhythms= internally driven daily cycles of approximately 24 hours affecting psychological and behavioral processes  Involve tendency to be asleep or awake at specific times, feel hungrier during some parts of the day  Circadian rhythms are things that make you feel most alert and tired  Change with age  Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) = key brain structure, cells in the retina of the eye relay messages about light levels in the environment to the SCN, the SCN in turn communicates signals about light levels with the pineal gland, the pineal gland releases a hormone called melatonin which peaks in concentration at night and reduced when awake  People who are blind due to retinal damage cant send light signals from retina to SCN and pineal gland  People experience a change in how they like to sleep – people like to sleep late, wake up late, later in adulthood we sleep early, wake up early The stages of sleep - Sleep has Rhythms - Polysommnography = refers to a set of objective measurements used to examine physiological variables during sleep o You can measure respiration, use a thermometer to measure body temperature o Electroencephalogram= measures brain waves  The output is a waveform  These waves can be describes by their frequency – the number of up and down cycles every second and their amplitude- the height and depth of the up and down cycle  Beta waves= high frequency, low amplitude waves- characteristic of wakefulness  Their irregular nature reflects the bursts of activity in different regions of the cortex and they are often interpreted as a sign that a person is alert  as the individual begins to shift into sleep, the waves start to become slower, larger, more predictable  These alpha waves signal that a person may be daydreaming, meditating or starting to fall asleep  EEG signals during sleep move through 4 different stages  1. Theta waves= Brain waves slow down and become higher in amplitude, breathing, blood pressure and heart rate decrease slightly as we begin to sleep, 10/15 min later:  2. Sleep spindles and k complexes= periodic bursts of EEG activity, they may play a role in helping maintain a state of sleep and in the process of memory storage, as stage 2 progresses we responds to few stimuli like light, 20 min later:  3. Delta waves= brain waves slow and develop new form  4. Sleeper is difficult to awaken  An hour after we fall asleep we end our first stage 4 phase and then the cycle repeats, we do not go all the way back to stage 1, we enter REM:  Which is a stage of sleep characterized by quickening brain waves, inhibited body movement and rapid eye movements (REM)  ^ Also known as paradoxical sleep because EEG waves appear to represent a state of wakefulness despite us being asleep  REM is so distinct that the first 4 phases are known collectively as non REM (NREM) sleep, at end of first REM we go back to deep sleep stages and back intro REM sleep again every 90-100 min  **REM is critical to a good nights sleep, when we are deprived of sleep we experience a phenomenon called REM rebound= our brains spend an increased time in REM phase sleep when given the chance, the lack of REM sleep may be the most negative aspect of sleep deprivation rather than amount of loss sleep time  If you usually get 8 hours of sleep but then get 3 hours one night, you can recover with 8 hours the next time but your REM will increase Why we need sleep - Restore and repair hypothesis o Body needs to restore energy levels and repair any wear and tear on the body from the days activities o Does not account for all reasons why we need sleep  If you have an unusually active day on Saturday and relax all day Sunday then you will feel more sleepy - Sleep is a physical and psychological necessity - Lack of sleep leads to cognitive decline, emotional disturbance, impairs functioning on immune system - For some lack of sleep = fatal - Preserve and protect hypothesis o Two more adaptive functions of sleep are preserving energy and protecting the organism from harm o Animals are most vulnerable to predators sleep in safe hideaways and during the time of day when they are most susceptible o For humans and other visually oriented creatures, sleep occurs at night when its dark and therefore when we would be at a disadvantage - Sleep deprivation and sleep displacement o You have sleep disruptions because of jet lag and occasional late night or something simple like daylight savings o Sleep deprivation= when an individual cant or does not sleep o Sleep displacement = when an individual is prevented from sleeping at the normal time although she may be able to sleep earlier or later in the day than usual Theories of dreaming - Psychoanalytic approach o The interpretation of dreams= Freud viewed dreams as an unconscious expression of wish fulfillment  Freud believed that humans are motivated by primal urges with sex and aggression being dominant o When we sleep we lose power to suppress urges so these drives create the vivid imagery of dreams  Manifest content- images and storylines that we dream about- involve sexuality and aggression, might seem like random images but Freud argues that these images are anything but random- he believed they had a hidden latent content- actual meaning of a dream built on suppressed sexual or aggressive urges - The activation-synthesis hypothesis o Suggests that dreams arise from brain activity originating from bursts of excitatory messages from the brainstem  This electrical activity activates perceptual areas of the brain, producing imaginary sights and sounds as well as emotional areas  Thus brain stem actions initiate activation component of the model  Synthesis component arises as brain tries to make sense of all images  Images are randomly activated, storyline of dream seems disjointed and bizarre - Problem Solving Theory- Rosalind cartwright proposed this, this theory that thoughts and concerns are continuous from waking to sleeping and that dreams may function to facilitate finding solutions to problems encountered while awake o The unconscious sleeping brain is actually devising a solution while we enjoy resting – misleading conclusion o Clarity that often arises after a nights rest seems to support the problem solving theory o Insights that appear to come from “sleeping on it” Disorders and Problems with sleep - Insomnia o Disorder characterized by an extreme lack of sleep o Average adult may need 7/8 hours of sleep to feel rested o Insomnia not defined in terms of hours of sleep but rather in terms of degree to which a person feels rested during the day o Insomnia often thought of as a single disorder it may be more appropriate to refer to insomnias o Onset insomnia= occurs when a person has difficulty falling asleep (30 min or more) o Maintenance insomnia= when an individual cant easily return to sleep after waking in the night o Terminal insomnia= situation in which a person wakes up too early, sometimes hour too early and cant fall back asleep o Insomnias stem from internal sleep disturbances, rather than by external stimuli over which one has little control – like neighbors persistent car alarm o Primary insomnia= refers to cases that arise from internal source and not result of another disorder o People stay awake because they worry about days events, upcoming stress or not getting enough sleep o Secondary insomnia= result of other disorders like depression - Nightmares and night terrors o Nightmares= vivid and disturbing occur in REM sleep  Can be emotionally charged  Have negative emotional content like feeling lost or sad o People who are distressed when they are awake are likely to experience distress when they are asleep o Night Terrors= intense bouts of panic and arousal that awaken the individual, typically in a heightened emotional state  Person experiencing a night terror may call out or scream, fight back against imaginary attackers  Terrors are not dreams  These episodes occur during NREM sleep and majority of people who experience them typically do not recall any specific dream content  Night terrors happen more in young children - Movement disturbances o An individual needs to remain still to sleep well o During REM sleep the brain prevents movement by sending inhibitory signals down spinal cord o A number of sleep disturbances however involve movement and related sensations o Restless legs syndrome= persistent feeling of discomfort in the legs and urge to continuously shift them into different positions o Disorder affects about 5/10% of population and occurs at varying levels of severit
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