Lecture 8 – November 5 th
Testing In Health Psychology
Stress: response to situations that involve demands, constraints, or opportunities (even big positive
things that bring about change can cause stress). Aspects of stress:
Frustration: when attainment of a goal is blocked.
Conflict: when you have to choose between goals.
Pressure: ecternal or internal
Anxiety: it’s a narrower construct than stress; more negative than stress. It’s an emotional state, marked
by worry, apprehension and tension. There are 2 types of anxiety:
State: this is when anxiety is an emotional reaction that varies from one situation to another.
Trait: this is when anxiety is a personality characteristic, associated with a general tendency towards
being anxious across different situations.
To distinguish the 2, they made a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, with 2 scales (one for Trait, and another
for State). Some sample items include: “I am tense” (state) and “I make decisions easily” (trait).
There are also tests that examine coping. These are classified into 2 broad categories:
Problem-focused coping: change the situation that is causing stress; active methods of coping (you’re
really trying to do something)
Emotion-focused coping: change how you deal with an emotional response to stress (you’re not
actually changing anything external).
The COPE Questionnaire was created to break down coping strategies into specific categories. Examples
of items on the questionnaire:
o “Saying ‘this isn’t