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Lecture #7- Attention & Memory.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Lecture 7 AttentionMemoryIn order for something to potentially be remembered it must be attended to in the first place Attention is selectivethis is necessary because attention is limited Selective attention is adaptive Change blindness is the common failure for people to notice large changes in their environment An example of this is even though a person looks at hisher watch multiple times in a day heshe would not be able to describe what the face looks likeSelective attention can be displayed through visual search tasksParallel Processing involves searching for on feature fast and automatic o The reaction time is not affected regardless of how many distracters there areSerial Processing involves searching for two or more features slow and effortful due to examining targets one by one o The reaction time is altered by the processing time Models of Memory The Information Processing ModelEncoding Phase Information us acquired and processed into a neural code that the brain can useStorage Phase The retention of encoded information whether it is for a second or a lifetimeRetrieval Phase Recalling or remembering the stored information when we need it The Modal Memory Model Newer Sensory Memory Once there is a sensory input the memory for sensory information only lasts a fraction of a second We are usually unaware of this but it allows for a continuous understanding of the world Once we pay attention to the information we can move on Unattended information is lostShortTermWorking Memory Once attention is given to the information it remains for 2030 seconds unless the information is actively thought about or rehearsed Unrehearsedunrepeated information is losto Roughly 7 pieces of information plusminus 2 can be stored in the working memory at one time o Chunking information is a process used to aid in memory retentionInformation is organized into smaller meaningful units to make it easier to remember o The working memory system has 4 componentsPhonological Loop auditory information is stored through repetition either out loud or inner voiceVisuospatial Sketchpad visual and spatial informationEpisodic Buffer information about oneself
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