Cues to Leadership
What are the 4 tenets of the ecological model of social perception?
How is Brunswick’s lens model different from the ecological model?
What are the 4 stages of the RAM model?
What is the attractiveness halo effect?
What is the babyface overgeneralization effect?
What in women’s faces predicts their marital satisfaction?
When does babyfacedness help you in court?
What is the lack of fit model?
Who is more likely to be honored for military bravery? Why?
Who wins elections in japan? In North America?
How can you judge SES from a person’s body?
What kind of surgeons get sued for malpractice?
Definitions of first impressions
Predicting CEO leadership success from appearance
Female CEOs and role congruity theory
Predicting law firm managing partner success from appearance
Predicting success from appearance over time
Consensus vs accuracy
Neural correlates of predicting
Ubiquitous and consequential
First impressions of teachers predict evaluations (Amady and Rosenthal, 1993)
Perceptions of faces predict
Both predictor and outcome are subjective
Teachers’ evaluations are based on students’ opinions
Electoral outcomes based on voters’ opinions
Opinions predicting others’ opinions
Opinions predicting external criteria
o Opinions still subjective
o But outcome not a consequence of opinions
Opinions of CEOs leadership abilities predicting company success
Naïve raters > CEOs’ faces relationship indirect at best 50 people rated personality traits: (1(not at all X) – 7 (very X)
50 more people
How successful at leading a company?
Not all successful (1) very successful (7)
Fortune 1000 CEOs
Physically homogenous sample:
All Caucasian men
Narrow age range
Correlate power, warmth, and success with revenues, profits
Control for attractiveness, expression, age
Leadership judgments predict profits but not revenues
Profits gold standard for a leader’s success in business
Company revenues scale with size (basis for fortune rankings)
CEOs look more powerful = companies more profits (r = 0.37)
Perceived as better leader = companies more profits ( r = 0.30)
The CEOs rated as more powerful/ better leaders actually lead more successful companies
Mixed/no relationship between CEO behavior/personality and company performance (agle et al,
Naïve first impressions of CEOs traits from faces predicted company performance
Less is more?
What about women?
Previous study only male CEOs
2% of fortune 1000 CEOs in FY2006 were female
Women lead differently than men (mixed evidence)
Role congruity theory (eagle et karay)
o concepts of “woman” and “leader” in opposition Clinton’s task: being likeable AND tough
Can women’s success be accurately predicted from first impressions, despite stereotypes?
All 20 female CEOs from fortune 1000: 2006
90 people rated the same traits (competence, dominance, etc)
80 people rated likely success leading
Results: similar pattern as with men
Competence correlated with profits (r=0.52)
Leadership correlated with profits (r=0.60)
Traits matter, not gender
Face is your fate?
Consistent across time
Predict later outcomes (Collins & zebrowitz 1995)
Dorian Gray effect?
Experiences shape development of appearance (zebrowitz et al 1998)
New domain” law firms
amlow 100 – America’s top 100 law firms 2007
Full distribution of targets (all 100 ranks)
Tenurelike promotion system
Both male and female managing partners (5%)
Additional dependent variables
o Profit margin
o Profitability index
o Profits per equity partner (PPP)
o Years of experience
o Size of law first
Undergrad graduation photos acquired for 73/100
Rated on same traits (power, warmth) with same control variables
Produce the same results:
Power correlated with profits Face is your fate or Dorian gray effect?
Looks more like face is your fate
Judgments of leaders are highly predictive/meaningful?
First impressions can predict important realworld outcomes
How do we do this?
Consensus – agreement in impressions
“Obama is likeable because everybody likes him”
Accuracy – correspondence between impression and outcome criterion (predictive validity)
“Madoff looks trustworthy” ……………but master of world’s worst Ponzi scheme
Consensus ▯accuracy but doesn’t work other way around
Examining brain response may reveal process
Neural correlates of subjective impressions well known
Hypothesis: the amygdala will respond in accord with evaluations of leadership
Question: will this response be validated by external criteria?
And if so, why?
Hypotheses about amygdala response:
Negative valence: (todorov &
Increased motivational significance/stimulus salience/arousal (Andersen et al, 2003,
Cunningham et al 2004)
Hypotheses about leadership:
Power associated with CEO success (Kaplan et al 2